Anti-inflammatory activity of total alkaloids from Hypecoum leptocarpum hook. f. et Thoms.
Format: Journal Article
Publication Year: 2018
Pages: 397 - 403
Source ID: shanti-sources-93471
Collection: Himalayan and Tibetan Medicine
Abstract: Background: Hypecoum leptocarpum Hook. f. et Thoms., which is used in traditional Tibetan medicine as an antipyretic, antitussive, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory agent, contains a variety of alkaloids that could be responsible for its analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of the total alkaloids from H. leptocarpum (AHL) in vitro and to elucidate the chemical structure of the anti-inflammatory components in AHL. Materials and Methods: Chemical characterization was performed using liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass and diode-array detector-high performance liquid chromatography. The anti-inflammatory effects of AHL were investigated by measuring the production of inflammatory cytokines using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and mRNA expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. Results: Chemical analysis of AHL revealed the presence of seven alkaloids, protopine (13.3%), cryptopine (1.5%), leptopidinine, leptocarpine, corydamine, dihydroleptopine, and oxohydrastinine. AHL significantly suppressed the production of nitric oxide (NO), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 β), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. The maximum levels of suppression of NO, IL-1 β, IL-6, and TNF-α were 86.8% ± 2.2%, 70.1% ± 1.5%, 100.1% ± 2.5%, and 50.8% ± 3.6%, respectively. IC50values of suppression of cytokine production by AHL were 7.47 ± 2.81 μg/mL (NO), 0.12 ± 0.28 μg/mL (IL-1 β), 0.56 ± 0.37 μg/mL (IL-6), and 18.95 ± 5.23 μg/mL (TNF-α). AHL was also shown to downregulate mRNA expression of inducible NO synthase, IL-1 β, IL-6, and TNF-α in vitro. Conclusion: The study provides convincing evidence that AHL has strong anti-inflammatory activity. The potent activity is likely a result of synergy between the different alkaloids. Abbreviations used: The total alkaloids from H. leptocarpum: AHL; Nitric oxide: NO; Interleukin-1 beta IL-1β; Interleukin-6: IL-6; Tumor necrosis factor-alpha: TNF-α; Prostaglandin E2: PGE2; Inducible nitric oxide synthase: iNOS; Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: NSAIDs; lipopolysaccharide: LPS; The total ion chromatograms: TIC; The liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time of flight: LC/Q-TOF; Nuclear factor-kappa B: NF-κB; Janus kinase-signal transducers and activators of transcription: JAK-STAT. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]