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Effect of repetitive yogic squats with specific hand position (Thoppukaranam) on selective attention and psychological states
International journal of yoga
Short Title: Int.J.Yoga
Format: Journal Article
Publication Date: Nov 30, 2013
Pages: 76 - 79
Sources ID: 44491
Notes: LR: 20170220; JID: 101313247; OTO: NOTNLM; 2014/07/19 06:00 [entrez]; 2014/07/19 06:00 [pubmed]; 2014/07/19 06:01 [medline]; ppublish
Visibility: Private
Abstract: (Show)
CONTEXT: Research on the effect of Thoppukaranam is limited despite it being practiced as a form of worship to the elephant-headed deity Lord Ganapati and punishment in schools. AIMS: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of Thoppukaranam on selective attention and psychological states in a sample of young adults. SETTINGS AND DESIGNS: A randomized self-as-control within subjects design was employed. Thirty undergraduate students (4 females and 26 males) from a residential Yoga University in Southern India were recruited for this study (group mean age +/- standard deviation, 20.17 +/- 2.92). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The d2 test, State Anxiety Inventory-Short Form and State Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (SMAAS) were used to measure cognitive performance and psychological states. Assessments were made in three sessions: Baseline, control (squats), and experimental (Thoppukaranam) on 3 separate days. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Data were analyzed using one-way repeated measures analyses of variance between three sessions, that is, baseline, squat, and Thoppukaranam. RESULTS: There was a significant improvement in all measures of the d2 test of attention (TN, E, TN-E, E%, and concentration performance) and state mindfulness after Thoppukaranam. Further state anxiety reduced significantly after the experimental session. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate Thoppukaranam results in enhancement of cognitive functioning and psychological states.