The ABCs of Yoga for Kids: A Guide for Parents and Teachers is a companion to The ABCs of Yoga for Kids, a 32-page, award-winning bestselling picture book that uses the alphabet, rhyming vignettes and colorful illustrations to introduce children to yoga in a kid-friendly way. This guidebook supports parents and teachers who wish to learn more about yoga for kids, including how to implement yoga into the daily lives of children. Readers will gain insight into what yoga is, how it can contribute to a child's active lifestyle and how to use yoga to alleviate many childhood challenges. This easy-to-use handbook offers basic guidelines for teaching yoga to kids and a sample children's yoga routine. The increased body awareness afforded by yoga helps kids make better choices for keeping themselves healthy, both physically and mentally.Bonus CD included with the book, featuring 3 new children's yoga songs by Teresa Anne Power.
The spontaneous oscillatory activity in the human brain shows long-range temporal correlations (LRTC) that extend over time scales of seconds to minutes. Previous research has demonstrated aberrant LRTC in depressed patients; however, it is unknown whether the neuronal dynamics normalize after psychological treatment. In this study, we recorded EEG during eyes-closed rest in depressed patients (N = 71) and healthy controls (N = 25), and investigated the temporal dynamics in depressed patients at baseline, and after attending either a brief mindfulness training or a stress reduction training. Compared to the healthy controls, depressed patients showed stronger LRTC in theta oscillations (4–7 Hz) at baseline. Following the psychological interventions both groups of patients demonstrated reduced LRTC in the theta band. The reduction of theta LRTC differed marginally between the groups, and explorative analyses of separate groups revealed noteworthy topographic differences. A positive relationship between the changes in LRTC, and changes in depressive symptoms was observed in the mindfulness group. In summary, our data show that aberrant temporal dynamics of ongoing oscillations in depressive patients are attenuated after treatment, and thus may help uncover the mechanisms with which psychotherapeutic interventions affect the brain.
BackgroundResting state functional connectivity (RSFC) research among adults indicates abnormalities within and between neural networks during acute depressive episodes, some of which are likely to remain into remission. The examination of RSFC among adolescents within the remitted state of MDD may implicate markers of illness course during a critical developmental window wherein secondary prevention can be implemented. Methods RSFC data were collected on a 3.0T GE scanner from adolescents (12–18, M=15.61, SD=1.90; 57% female) in full or partial remission from MDD (rMDD; n=23) and age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HC; n=10). RSFC data were examined using seed-based connectivity of the left amygdala, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), and left posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). These seeds were chosen to probe the emotional salience, cognitive control, and default mode networks, respectively. Results rMDD adolescents demonstrated relative hyperconnectivity from the left amygdala to the right PCC, as well as from the left dlPFC to the right middle frontal and left inferior frontal gyri (MFG, IFG). Amygdala to PCC connectivity was correlated with greater rumination, dlPFC to MFG connectivity was positively associated with depression severity, and dlPFC to IFG connectivity was inversely associated with mindfulness. Conclusions Aberrant functional connectivity within and between neural networks responsible for salience attribution, introspective thought, and executive control can be observed among adolescents in the remitted phase of MDD and is associated with residual clinical symptoms. These patterns may confer risk for future relapse or alternatively, support wellness.
THE pearly white humanoid watches placidly as the woman moves a toy brick sitting on the table. Inside, iCub’s imagination is running wild.The robot is being tested for its ability to track the mental states of others. Known as theory of mind this gives humans many sophisticated traits, including empathy and deception Robots have demonstrated theory of mind before but iCub is different. Last week, at the Living Machines conference in London, researchers revealed that it is the first robot to acquire theory of mind without specific programming.
Presents Skinner's explanation of the theories propounded in his book Beyond Freedom and Dignity defining, analyzing, and defending his highly controversial views on behaviorism. Among the topics discussed are the causes of behavior; innate, operant, and verbal behavior; thinking and knowing; and emotion and the sense of self. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
Jon Kabat-Zinn, PhD, is internationally known for his work as a scientist, writer, and mindfulness meditation teacher. Kabat-Zinn developed the formal mindfulness practices. Jon Kabat-Zinn brought mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), into the mainstream of medicine and society.
Biomass partitioning has been explored across various biomes. However, the strategies of allocation in plants still remain contentious. This study investigated allocation patterns of above- and belowground biomass at the community level, using biomass survey from the Tibetan Plateau. We explored above- and belowground biomass by conducting three consecutive sampling campaigns across shrub biomes on the northeast Tibetan Plateau during 2011-2013. We then documented the above-ground biomass (AGB), below-ground biomass (BGB) and root: shoot ratio (R/S) and the relationships between R/S and environment factors using data from 201 plots surveyed from 67 sites. We further examined relationships between above-ground and below-ground biomass across various shrub types. Our results indicated that the median values of AGB, BGB, and R/S in Tibetan shrub were 1102.55, 874.91 g m-2, and 0.85, respectively. R/S showed significant trend with mean annual precipitation (MAP), while decreased with mean annual temperature (MAT). Reduced major axis analysis indicated that the slope of the log-log relationship between above- and belowground biomass revealed a significant difference from 1.0 over space, supporting the optimal hypothesis. Interestingly, the slopes of the allometric relationship between log AGB and log BGB differed significantly between alpine and desert shrub. Our findings supported the optimal theory of above- and belowground biomass partitioning in Tibetan shrub, while the isometric hypothesis for alpine shrub at the community level.
Though aboveground biomass (AGB) has an important contribution to the global carbon cycle, the information about storage and climatic effects of AGB is scare in Three-River Source Region (TRSR) shrub ecosystems. This study investigated AGB storage and its climatic controls in the TRSR alpine shrub ecosystems using data collected from 23 sites on the Tibetan Plateau from 2011 to 2013. We estimated the AGB storage (both shrub layer biomass and grass layer biomass) in the alpine shrubs as 37.49 Tg, with an average density of 1447.31 g m<sup>-2</sup>. Biomass was primarily accumulated in the shrub layer, which accounted for 92% of AGB, while the grass layer accounted for only 8%. AGB significantly increased with the mean annual temperature (<i>P</i> < 0.05). The effects of the mean annual precipitation on AGB were not significant. These results suggest that temperature, rather than precipitation, has significantly effects on of aboveground vegetation growth in the TRSR alpine shrub ecosystems. The actual and potential increase in AGB density was different due to global warming varies among different regions of the TRSR. We conclude that long-term monitoring of dynamic changes is necessary to improve the accuracy estimations of potential AGB carbon sequestration across the TRSR alpine shrub ecosystems.
This paper focuses on the testimonies of three male primary school staff members who utilised social and emotional learning (SEL) in their everyday practice within their respective schools. The data, collected through individual interviews, illustrate how these three men interpreted SEL, and their role in the development of children's social, emotional and behavioural (SEB) skills, in response to their perceptions of pupils' home-life. In particular, the sample identified the children's fathers' perceived ability/inability as a main cause of pupils' SEB deficiencies. Consequently, the three male staff members maintained that in order to advocate and encourage alternative, appropriate behaviours, they should act as "replacement fathers" and become "role models". The findings contribute to existing debates relating to the notion of "positive male role models" in primary schools and the propensity for staff to engage in parental blame. The implications of these findings are discussed, and suggestions that call for a more democratic and cooperative exchange of knowledge between parents and teachers are made.
<p>This book argues for the central role played by absorption in the functioning of the human mind. The importance of absorption makes itself felt in different ways; the two studies combined in this book concentrate on two of them. The first study, 'The Symbolic Mind', argues that, largely as a result of language acquisition, humans have two levels of cognition, which in normal circumstances are simultaneously active. Absorption is a (or the) means to circumvent some, perhaps all, of the associations that characterize one of these two levels of cognition, resulting in what is sometimes referred to as mysitcal experience, but which is not confined to mysticism and plays a role in various "religious" phenomena, and elsewhere. In the second study, 'The Psychology of the Buddha', Prof. Bronkhorst provides a theoretical context for the observation that absorption is a source of pleasure, grapples with Freud, and illustrates his observations through translations of ancient Buddhist texts from the Pali ans Sanskrit languages along with his psychological commentary.</p>
After reviewing six senses of abstraction, this article focuses on abstractions that take the form of summary representations. Three central properties of these abstractions are established: ( i ) type-token interpretation; (ii) structured representation; and (iii) dynamic realization. Traditional theories of representation handle interpretation and structure well but are not sufficiently dynamical. Conversely, connectionist theories are exquisitely dynamic but have problems with structure. Perceptual symbol systems offer an approach that implements all three properties naturally. Within this framework, a loose collection of property and relation simulators develops to represent abstractions. Type-token interpretation results from binding a property simulator to a region of a perceived or simulated category member. Structured representation results from binding a configuration of property and relation simulators to multiple regions in an integrated manner. Dynamic realization results from applying different subsets of property and relation simulators to category members on different occasions. From this standpoint, there are no permanent or complete abstractions of a category in memory. Instead, abstraction is the skill to construct temporary online interpretations of a category's members. Although an infinite number of abstractions are possible, attractors develop for habitual approaches to interpretation. This approach provides new ways of thinking about abstraction phenomena in categorization, inference, background knowledge and learning.
In this article, we examine similarities and differences in the academic, social, and behavioral skills of high school students with emotional disturbances (ED) and learning disabilities (LD). Two groups of high school students with ED (n = 45) and LD (n = 49) were compared on nine measures in academic, behavioral, and social domains using multivariate procedures. Results indicated that there were significant differences in the characteristics of these students, with seven of the original nine variables differentiating group membership. In general, adolescent students with LD exhibited higher levels of social competence and lower levels of behavioral problems as compared to adolescent students with ED. Findings also revealed that a substantial percentage of the variance (50%) between adolescents with ED and adolescents with LD could be explained. Furthermore, the variables in this model differentiated between these two groups, with 78.57% of students with ED and 78.95% of students with LD being correctly classified. Limitations of the study are discussed and directions for future research are offered.
Academic stress is the most common emotional or mental state that students experience during their studies. Stress is a result of a wide range of issues, including test and exam burden, a demanding course, a different educational system, and thinking about future plans upon graduation. A sizeable body of literature in stress management research has found that self-regulation and being mindful will help students to cope up with the stress and dodge long-term negative consequences, such as substance abuse. The present study aims to investigate the influence of academic stress, self-regulation, and mindfulness among undergraduate students in Klang Valley, Malaysia, and to identify mindfulness as the mediator between academic stress and self-regulation. For this study, a total of 384 undergraduate students in Klang Valley, Malaysia were recruited. Using Correlational analysis, results revealed that there was a significant relationship between academic stress, self-regulation, and mindfulness. However, using SPSS mediational analysis, mindfulness did not prove the mediator role in the study.
<p>The oft-repeated claim that Earth’s biota is entering a sixth “mass extinction” depends on clearly demonstrating that current extinction rates are far above the “background” rates prevailing between the five previous mass extinctions. Earlier estimates of extinction rates have been criticized for using assumptions that might overestimate the severity of the extinction crisis. We assess, using extremely conservative assumptions, whether human activities are causing a mass extinction. First, we use a recent estimate of a background rate of 2 mammal extinctions per 10,000 species per 100 years (that is, 2 E/MSY), which is twice as high as widely used previous estimates. We then compare this rate with the current rate of mammal and vertebrate extinctions. The latter is conservatively low because listing a species as extinct requires meeting stringent criteria. Even under our assumptions, which would tend to minimize evidence of an incipient mass extinction, the average rate of vertebrate species loss over the last century is up to 100 times higher than the background rate. Under the 2 E/MSY background rate, the number of species that have gone extinct in the last century would have taken, depending on the vertebrate taxon, between 800 and 10,000 years to disappear. These estimates reveal an exceptionally rapid loss of biodiversity over the last few centuries, indicating that a sixth mass extinction is already under way. Averting a dramatic decay of biodiversity and the subsequent loss of ecosystem services is still possible through intensified conservation efforts, but that window of opportunity is rapidly closing.Humans are causing a massive animal extinction without precedent in 65 million years. Humans are causing a massive animal extinction without precedent in 65 million years.</p>
Research indicates that the culturally responsive teaching strategies outlined in this book accelerate literacy, language development, and academic growth for students in grades K-8, particularly for English language learners. Completely revised and updated, this bestselling resource speaks to the social-emotional needs of learners and helps teachers support each child's development of a positive self-concept. The authors present best practices, aligned with reading and content standards, and tools for developing academic talk and instructional conversations in the classroom. Special emphasis is placed on using student culture and language as a means for promoting meaningful relationships among communities of learners. The text includes tips for using the strategies for parental involvement, gathering knowledge of the student's background, and promoting social-emotional learning. A companion website provides new video of the strategies being used in classrooms. Book features include: (1) Connections to ELP standards and skills with emphasis on processes that foster reading, writing, and comprehension skills; (2) Guidance to help teachers move beyond static grouping structures and instead utilize responsive opportunities for collaboration and instructional conversations to introduce, rehearse, and review content; (3) Technology connections that help teachers maximize the strategies as systematic learning tools for students; (4) Detailed steps and instructional tips for strategy implementation; and (5) Access to teacher-in-action video clips that demonstrate key strategies in practice. [Foreword by Ester J. de Jong.]
Since the mid-1970s, the development of tourism in Ladakh, a remote region in the Indian Himalayas, has attracted an increasing number of foreigners interested in Tibetan medicine. Some English-speaking practitioners have taken the opportunity to directly address this new clientele, in their own clinics or through public lectures. This article is concerned with this local manifestation of therapeutic globalization. More specifi cally, it examines how these practitioners present an elaborated and complex body of medical knowledge with the intention of making it accessible to foreigners. The practitioners pragmatically attempt to create a space for communication, but neither their medical knowledge nor their practice are deeply altered for all that. The brevity of these encounters, however, imposes a need for simplifi cation and reformulation of knowledge, which accentuate existing characteristics in Tibetan medicine, such as Buddhism taken here as an example, and may convey distorted or truncated ideas to their interlocutors. This article shows that the processes involved in the "translation" of Tibetan medical knowledge are not restricted to matters of language or the infl uence of the new market in Tibetan medicine in the region. In trying to understand these expressions of knowledge, one encounters a particular, two-pronged demand: The need to refl ect on the architecture of erudite knowledge in the Tibetan world, and on the regional sociopolitical and economic dynamics. These considerations will help to place in proper perspective some assumptions on the enchantment and transformation of Tibetan medicine in similar environments.
<p>We present findings on the (1) acceptability of Spiritual Self-Schema (3-S) therapy with Puerto Rican women and (2) fit with women's cultural, gender, literacy, clinical, and religious backgrounds. 3-S is a well-documented efficacious intervention for substance use and HIV risk behaviors. Participants were 13 urban, low-income Puerto Rican women in a residential treatment program in a large Northeastern city.Findings from therapy session videotapes, focus groups, and clinician memos indicate high acceptability and fit of 3-S therapy for Puerto Rican women. However, lack of fit in several areas indicates the need for modification of specific aspects of 3-S for Latinas.</p>
Both dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) include training in mindfulness skills and address the synthesis of acceptance and change. DBT is a comprehensive treatment for borderline personality disorder (BPD). MBCT was developed for prevention of relapse in individuals with a history of depressive episodes. Both have considerable empirical support for their efficacy. Many individuals with BPD also suffer from depressive episodes, which can interfere with motivation to participate in DBT. In such cases, it may be helpful to integrate strategies designed to prevent recurrence of depressive episodes. This case study describes integration of MBCT into ongoing DBT in the treatment of an individual with BPD and a history of depressive episodes. Findings suggest that MBCT can be successfully integrated into ongoing DBT in cases in which prevention of depressive episodes is an important goal. Findings also suggest that mindfulness skills may be very helpful in enhancing the efficacy of traditional cognitive-behavioral treatment approaches. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)