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Over the past 30 years, mental health practitioners, encouraged by rigorous empirical studies and literature and meta-analytic reviews, have increasingly appreciated the ability of hypnosis to modulate attention, imagination, and motivation in the service of therapeutic goals. This article describes how hypnosis can be used as an adjunctive procedure in the treatment of depression and rumination symptoms, in particular. The focus is on attention-based treatments that include rumination-focused cognitive behavioral therapy, cognitive control training, and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy. The authors provide numerous examples of techniques and approaches that can potentially enhance treatment gains, including a hypnotic induction to facilitate mindfulness and to motivate mindfulness practice. Although hypnosis appears to be a promising catalyst of attention and mindfulness, research is required to document the incremental value of adding hypnosis to the treatments reviewed.

We examined the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) in a sample of 810 undergraduate students. Using common exploratory factor analysis (EFA), we obtained evidence for a 1-factor solution (41.84% common variance). To confirm unidimensionality of the 15-item MAAS, we conducted a 1-factor confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Results of the EFA and CFA, respectively, provided support for a unidimensional model. Using differential item functioning analysis methods within item response theory modeling (IRT-based DIF), we found that individuals with high and low levels of nonattachment responded similarly to the MAAS items. Following a detailed item analysis, we proposed a 5-item short version of the instrument and present descriptive statistics and composite score reliability for the short and full versions of the MAAS. Finally, correlation analyses showed that scores on the full and short versions of the MAAS were associated with measures assessing related constructs. The 5-item MAAS is as useful as the original MAAS in enhancing our understanding of the mindfulness construct.