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Our previous study isolated an anti-fatigue polysaccharide (HRWP) from the Hippophae rhamnoides berry. In this study, using ion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration chromatography in turn, a water-soluble homogenous polysaccharide HRWP-A was isolated from HRWP. Structural analysis determined that HRWP-A was a polysaccharide with repeating units of (1→4)-β-d-galactopyranosyluronic residues, of which 85.16% were esterified with methyl groups. An antitumor activity assay showed that HRWP-A could significantly inhibit the Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) growth in tumor-bearing mice. Further experiments suggested that the antitumor effect of HRWP-A might be mediated through immunostimulating activity, as it enhances the lymphocyte proliferation, augments the macrophage activities, as well as promoting NK cell activity and CTL cytotoxicity in tumor-bearing mice. To our knowledge, this is the first report on a natural antitumor high-methoxyl homogalacturonan pectin from the H. rhamnoides berry-a compound that acts as a potential immunostimulant and anticancer adjuvant.

Ethnopharmacological relevance: The fruits of <b>Hippophae rhamnoides</b> L., <b>Lycium barbarum</b> L., <b>Lycium ruthenicum</b> Murr. and <b>Nitraria tangutorum</b> Bobr. are traditional medicinal food of Tibetans and used to alleviate fatigue caused by oxygen deficiency for thousands of years. The present study focused on exploiting natural polysaccharides with remarkable anti-fatigue activity from the four Qinghai-Tibet plateau characteristic berries.<br>Materials and methods: The fruits of <b>Hippophae rhamnoides</b>, <b>Lycium barbarum</b>, <b>Lycium ruthenicum</b> and <b>Nitraria tangutorum</b> were collected from Haixi national municipality of Mongol and Tibetan (N 36.32°, E98.11°; altitude: 3100 m), Qinghai, China. Their polysaccharides (HRWP, LBWP, LRWP and NTWP) were isolated by hot-water extraction, and purified by DEAE-Cellulose ion-exchange chromatography. The total carbohydrate, uronic acid, protein and starch contents of polysaccharides were determined by a spectrophotometric method. The molecular weight distributions of polysaccharides were determined by gel filtration chromatography. Their monosaccharide composition analysis was performed by the method of 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP) pre-column derivatization and RP-HPLC analysis. HRWP, LBWP, LRWP and NTWP (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) were orally administrated to mice once daily for 15 days, respectively. Anti-fatigue activity was assessed using the forced swim test (FST), and serum biochemical parameters were determined by an autoanalyzer and commercially available kits; the body and organs were also weighted.<br>Result: LBWP, LRWP and NTWP were mainly composed of glucans and some RG-I pectins, and HRWP was mainly composed of HG-type pectin and some glucans. All the four polysaccharides decreased immobility in the FST, and the effects of LBWP and NTWP were demonstrated in lower doses compared with HRWP and LRWP. There was no significant difference in liver and heart indices between non-treated and polysaccharide-treated mice, but the spleen indices were increased in LBWP and NTWP (200 mg/kg) group. Moreover, the FST-induced reduction in glucose (Glc), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and increase in creatine phosphokinase (CK), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), triglyceride (TG) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, all indicators of fatigue, were inhibited by HRWP, LBWP, LRWP and NTWP to a certain extent while the effects of LBWP and NTWP were much better than that of HRWP and LRWP at the same dosage.<br>Conclusion: Water-soluble polysaccharides HRWP, LBWP, LRWP and NTWP, from the fruits of four Tibetan plateau indigenous berry plants, significantly exhibited anti-fatigue activities for the first time, through triglyceride (TG) (or fat) mobilization during exercise and protecting corpuscular membrane by prevention of lipid oxidation via modifying several enzyme activities. Moreover, it is demonstrated that LBWP and NTWP are more potent than HRWP and LRWP, which were proposed to be applied in functional foods for anti-fatigue and antioxidant potential.<br><br>Display Omitted

The Nitraria tangutorum Bobr. fruit is an indigenous berry of the shrub belonging to the Zygophyllaceae family which grows at an altitude of over 3000 m in the Tibetan Plateau, and has been used as a native medicinal food for treating weakness of the spleen, stomach syndrome, dyspepsia, neurasthenia, dizziness, etc. for thousands of years. Nowadays, N. tangutorum industrial juice by-products generated from health food production can be a potential low cost source of some unique bioactive ingredients. In a prior study, we established a simultaneous microwave/ultrasonic assisted enzymatic extraction method for extracting antioxidant ingredients from the industrial by-products of N. tangutorum juice. In this study, these ingredients were selectively fractionated by cation-exchange resin chromatography to obtain an anthocyanin fraction namely NJBAE. NJBAE was found to be composed of 16 anthocyanins derived from six anthocyanidins by HPLC-ESI-MS, and has an appreciable cardioprotective effect on doxorubicin-induced injured H9c2 cardiomyocytes. The cardioprotective mechanism research showed that NJBAE could directly scavenge ROS, restrict further generation of ROS, promote the activity of key antioxidase, enhance glutathione redox cycling, then affect the apoptotic signaling changes in a positive way, and finally mediate caspase-dependent cell death pathways. Therefore, NJBAE has great potential to be used for preventing and treating cardiovascular disease in the food, pharmaceutical and other emerging industries.

In order to reveal the chemical substance basis of pharmacodynamic effects of Zuotai, energy dispersive spectrometry of X-ray (EDX), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), synchrotron radiation X-ray absorption fine structure (SR-XAFS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) were used to analyze the elements, the chemical valence and local structure of mercury, and the chemical phase composition and micro-morphology of Zuotai. EDX and XRF analysis shows that the main elements in Zuotai are Hg and S, with some other minor elements, such as 0, Fe, Al, Cu, K, Ag, Ca, Mg etc. SR-XAFS analysis shows that: the oxidation state of mercury in Zuotai is divalence, its neighbor atoms are S, and its coordination number is four. XRD assay found that β-HgS (cubic, F-43m 216) and S8 (orthorhombic, Fddd 70) are the main phase compositions in Zuotai. Besides, it also has a small amount of C (hexagonal, P63/mmc 194), Fel.05 S0.95 (hexagonal, P63/mmc 194), Cu6S6 (hexagonal, P63/mmc 194), Cu1.8 S (cubic, F-43m 216) and so on. And it was found that the crystallinity of Zuotai is about 59%, and the amorphous morphology substance in it is about 41%. SEM and AFM detection suggests that Zuotai is a kind of ancient micro-nano drug, and its particle size is mainly in the range of 100-600 nm, even less than 100 nm, which commonly further aggregate into several to 30 µm loose amorphous particles. In summary, the present study elucidated physicochemical characterization(elements composition, coordination information of mercury, phase composition and micro-morphology) of Zuotai, and it will play a positive role in promoting the interpretation of this mysterious drug.;

Zuotai (gTso thal) is one of the famous drugs containing mercury in Tibetan medicine. However, little is known about the chemical substance basis of its pharmacodynamics and the intrinsic link of different samples sources so far. Given this, energy dispersive spectrometry of X-ray (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to assay the elements, micromorphology, and phase composition of nine Zuotai samples from different regions, respectively; the XRD fingerprint features of Zuotai were analyzed by multivariate statistical analysis. EDX result shows that Zuotai contains Hg, S, O, Fe, Al, Cu, and other elements. SEM and AFM observations suggest that Zuotai is a kind of ancient nanodrug. Its particles are mainly in the range of 100–800 nm, which commonly further aggregate into 1–30 μm loosely amorphous particles. XRD test shows that β-HgS, S8, and α-HgS are its main phase compositions. XRD fingerprint analysis indicates that the similarity degrees of nine samples are very high, and the results of multivariate statistical analysis are broadly consistent with sample sources. The present research has revealed the physicochemical characteristics of Zuotai, and it would play a positive role in interpreting this mysterious Tibetan drug. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Our previous study isolated a natural high-methoxyl homogalacturonan (HRWP-A) from Hippophae rhamnoides and showed antitumor activity in vivo. In this study, the immunomodulatory activity and mechanisms of action of HRWP-A were further investigated. Results showed that HRWP-A could recover the body condition and activated macrophage in Cyclophosphamide (CTX)-induced immunosuppressed mice. Further, we investigated the possible mechanism underlying the effects of HRWP-A on mouse peritoneal macrophages. qPCR and western blot revealed that HRWP-A upregulated the expression of TLR4 mRNA in vitro. This process was accompanied by a clear increase in MyD88 expression and p-IκB-α, but these effects were largely abrogated by pretreatment with anti-TLR4 antibodies. The effects of HRWP-A on macrophage NO, IL-1β and IL-6 production were also inhibited by anti-TLR4 antibodies and were greatly influenced by the NF-κB inhibitor PDTC. Moreover, HRWP-A failed to induce the production of NO, IL-1β and IL-6 in peritoneal macrophages prepared from C3H/HeJ mice, which have a point mutation in the Tlr4 gene, suggesting the involvement of the TLR4 molecule in HRWP-A-mediated macrophage activation. These results may have important implications for our understanding of the structure-activity relationship of immunopotentiating polysaccharides from medicinal herbs.

<br>Display Omitted<br>• Mercuric chloride-human serum albumin adduct causes hormesis in N9 microglia cells. • Hormesis was implemented through ERK/MAPKs and JAK/STAT3 signaling pathways. • 15 ng/mL of Hg-HSA was close to a NOAEL for N9 cells and this dose may be beneficial. • Hg2+ could form stable coordination structures in both Asp249 site and Cys34 site of HSA.<br>Mercury chloride (HgCl2), a neurotoxicant that cannot penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Although when the BBB are got damaged by neurodegenerative disorders, the absorbed HgCl2, mainly in form of Hg (II)-serum albumin adduct (Hg-HSA) in human plasma, can penetrate BBB and affect central nervous system (CNS) cells. Current study planned to evaluate the effect of Hg-HSA on the physiological function of N9 microglial cells. At low dosage (15 ng/mL) of Hg-HAS, the observed outcomes was: promoted cell propagation, Nitric Oxide (NO) and intracellular Ca2+ levels enhancement, suppressed the release of TNF-α and IL-1β and inhibited cell proliferation. At high dosage (15 μg/mL) we observed decline in NO and intracellular Ca2+ levels, and increment in the release of TNF-α and IL-1β. These biphasic effects are similar to hormesis, and the hormesis, in this case, was executed through ERK/MAPKs and JAK/STAT3 signaling pathways. Study of quantum chemistry revealed that Hg2+ could form stable coordination structures in both Asp249 and Cys34 sites of HSA. Although five-coordination structure in Asp249 site is more stable than four-coordination structure in Cys34 site but four-coordination structure is formed easily in-<b>vivo</b> in consideration of binding-site position in spatial structure of HSA.

Mercury sulfide is an insoluble inorganic mercury compound, and it is the main chemical form in traditional oral mercury-containing medicines. Hg2+ has a high affinity for thiols, and small molecule thiols in the gastrointestinal tract may promote mercury dissolution of mercury sulfide by binding to Hg2+. L-cysteine is the only amino acid that possesses a reducing sulfhydryl group (-SH), out of the 20 amino acids. This study investigates the effect of L-cysteine on mercury dissolution of mercury sulfide at pHs ranging from 1.2 to 7.2. The results showed that L-cysteine had different pH-dependent effects on the mercury dissolution of α-HgS and β-HgS. For α-HgS, the dissolved mercury concentration increased from 5.47 ± 0.97 ng/mL to 12.49 ± 0.54 ng/mL when the pH rose from 1.2 to 4.2, and decreased to 3.37 ± 0.70 ng/mL at pH 6.0 and then increased to 9.36 ± 0.79 ng/mL at pH 7.2. For β-HgS, the dissolved mercury concentration increased from 151.09 ± 2.25 ng/mL to 2346.71 ± 62.62 ng/mL when the pH increased from 1.2 to 7.2. In conclusion, L-Cys was distinctly enhanced upon mercury dissolution of α-HgS and β-HgS with increasing pH. These results may contribute to our understanding of the mercury absorption mechanism of traditional oral mercury-containing medicines.

• Gelatin was extracted from the Yak (<b>bos grunniens</b>) skin. • The different molecular weight distribution (MWD) Yak skin gelatin was extracted with pepsin by controlling the enzymolysis time. • The broad MWD Yak skin gelatin has higher imino acids contents and lower foamability and emulsibility compared with the narrow MWD gelatin. • The Yak skin gelatin has good thermotolerance.<br>Different molecular weight distribution (MWD) gelatin was extracted from Yak skin after enzymatic pretreatments and their physicochemical and functional properties (SDS-PAGE, UV-vis absorption spectra, DSC, FT-IR, Amino acid analysis, AFM, emulsibility and foamability) were analyzed. The gelatin was extracted by pepsin and got different MWD of Yak skin gelatin by controlling the enzymolysis time. The SDS-PAGE showed the MWD of the Yak skin gelatin. The UV-vis absorption turned out that the broad MWD of Yak skin gelatin had a higher maximum absorption peaks. The FT-IR and AFM indicated that the gelatin structures and microstructures changed with the change of the MWD. The broad MWD of the Yak skin gelatin had a higher denaturation temperature (TD), and it was higher than most of the other mammals and marine biological gelatin. The broad MWD gelatin also had higher imino acids (proline and hydroxyproline) contents and lower foamability and emulsibility compared to the narrow MWD gelatin. These findings, obtained for the first time for Yak skin gelatin, showed that it has great potential for application as an alternative to commercial gelatin due to its good thermotolerance, particularly in the applications of the biological materials, stabilizer of thermo-tolerant and so on.

• A simultaneous microwave/ultrasonic-assisted enzymatic extraction method was established for the first time. • Simultaneous microwave/ultrasonic-assisted enzymatic process can improve antioxidant capacity of juice by-product extract. • Simultaneous microwave/ultrasonic-assisted enzymatic process can increase the extraction efficiency of antioxidant ingredients. • <b>Nitraria tangutorun</b> Bobr. juice by-products extract exhibited excellent cell protection effect from oxidative injury.<br>By-products originating from food processing are a considerable disposal problem for the food industry. Because of the absence of specifically effective processing technology, huge quantities of by-products are often abandoned as rubbish and prone to microbial spoilage. Given this, a simultaneous microwave/ultrasonic assisted enzymatic extraction (SMU-AEE) method was established for the first time, and performed for antioxidant ingredients extraction from <b>Nitraria tangutorum</b> juice by-products (NJB) in the present study. Its experimental conditions were optimized by single factor test and response surface methodology (RSM), and gave the corresponding response values for antioxidant capacity of NJB extract (NJBE) of 219.73 ± 7.03 mg TE/g, which was 27.62%-190.23% higher than those obtained by traditional extraction methods. Chemical composition assay suggested that the increasing of antioxidant capacity of NJBE by SMU-AEE was because of the improvement of extraction efficiency of antioxidant ingredients from NJB, including phenols, flavonoids and anthocyanins. Furthermore, oxidative injury protection ability assay showed that NJBE was good at protecting cells from UVB-oxidative phototoxicity and doxorubicin-oxidative cardiotoxicity, and its protecting ability surpasses or approaches to that of grape seed extract (GSE, the positive control drug), indicating its good potential to be a natural antioxidant in food and pharmaceutical industries.

Background: Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) cause a considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide especially in children. However, there are few studies of the etiological structure of ARIs in Russia. In this work, we analyzed the etiology of ARIs in children (0–15 years old) admitted to Novosibirsk Children’s Municipal Clinical Hospital in 2013–2017. Methods: We tested nasal and throat swabs of 1560 children with upper or lower respiratory infection for main respiratory viruses (influenza viruses A and B, parainfluenza virus types 1–4, respiratory syncytial virus, metapneumovirus, four human coronaviruses, rhinovirus, adenovirus and bocavirus) using a RT-PCR Kit. Results: We detected 1128 (72.3%) samples were positive for at least one virus. The most frequently detected pathogens were respiratory syncytial virus (358/1560, 23.0%), influenza virus (344/1560, 22.1%), and rhinovirus (235/1560, 15.1%). Viral co-infections were found in 163 out of the 1128 (14.5%) positive samples. We detected significant decrease of the respiratory syncytial virus-infection incidence in children with increasing age, while the reverse relationship was observed for influenza viruses. Conclusions: We evaluated the distribution of respiratory viruses in children with ARIs and showed the prevalence of respiratory syncytial virus and influenza virus in the etiological structure of infections. This study is important for the improvement and optimization of diagnostic tactics, control and prevention of the respiratory viral infections. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]