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[Objectives] By clustering analysis of tissue distribution data of brucine and strychnine in gastric ulcer model rat, the impact of Zuota on tissue distribution of basic components was studied. [Methods] Based on system clustering method of SPSS19.0 statistical analysis software, using inter-group join method and squared Euclidean distance, brucine and strychnine contents of different tissues and organs in non- Zuota group and Zuota group were taken as characteristic variables for clustering analysis, and phylogenetic tree was established. [Results] When clustering distance was 1, (i) taking brucine content as the index, there were three kinds of convergences in non-Zuota group. A1 class: skin, liver, epididymitis and jejunum; A2 class: brain and uterus; A class: testis and muscle. Brucine contents of the three classes showed a A1 < A2 < A. There were two classes of convergences in Zuota group. B1 class : jejunum, epididymis, kidney, brain, skin and uterus; B2 class: muscle and (bottom) submandibular gland. Brucine contents of the two classes showed as B1 < B2. (ii) Taing strychnine content as the index, there were three classes of convergences in non-Zuota group. C1 class: muscle, testicle and oarrum; C2 class: heart and lung; C3 class: uterus and liver. Strychnine contents of the three classes showed a C3 <C1 < C2. There were two kinds of convergences in Zuota group. D1 class : kidney and heart; D2 class : brain tissue and uterus. Strychnine contents of the two classes showed as D1 > D2. [Conclusions] When clustering distance was 1, low-content tissues and orgas firstly clustered, and its toxicological eefect(or pharmacodynamic action)was insignificant, and this kind of tissues and organs were relatively safe. A1 class and A2 class in Zuota group were merged into B1 class, in which liver was replaced by kidney. It iilustrated that Zuota could decline the toxicity of kidney, and enlarged the safe action range of brucine. Kidney and heart in C2 class were clustered into D1 class, and average strychnine content in C2 class was higher than that of D1 class. It could be deduced that Zuota had the effect of protecting heat.
[Objectives] To explore the mechanism for the attenuate-synergistic effect of Zuota to Renqing Mangue, a contrasted study on the tissue distribution of Tibetan medicines Renqing Mangue compatible with Zuota was carried out. [Methods] The SD rats gastric ulcer model were made successfully, and then respectively were given Renqing Mangue compatible with Zuota or not according to the dose of 0.144 g/kg and normal saline by gavage administration, once a day. After 14 d of administration, various organs and tissue were isolated, including brain, heat, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, jejunum, skeletal muscle, fat, skin, submandibular gland, uterus and ovary (or testicle and epididymis). The LC-MS/MS methods were used for determining the contents of brucine and strychnine in various organs and tissue, and significant difference analysis, main target site analysis and clustering analysis were implemented. [Results] Between the Zuota group and non-Zuota group, there was extremely significat diference in the content of brucine in the liver, kidney, muscle, lung, ovary, and heart (P < 0.01), significant difference in the jeeunum (P <0.05), and no significant diference in the epididymis, testis, brain, skin and uterus (P > 0.05); the content of brucine in the submadibular gland, spleen, liver and ovary increased significantly, but significanty reduced in the kidney, muscle, jeeunum, lung and heart. And there was extremely significant diference in the content of strychnine in the liver, kidney, ovary, brain and heat (P <0.01), and no significat difference in the uterus (P > 0.05); the strychnine content increased significantly in the liver, spleen and ovary, and significanty decreased in the kidney, muscle, testis, lung, brain and heart. [Conclusions] Compatibility of Zuota can afect the distribution of brucine and strychnine in some tissue and organs, so a to achieve attenuate-synergistic effect of Zuota to Renqing Mague. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
[Obbectives] To research the fingerprints of chemical components of chloroform parts of Renqing Mangue and Renqing Mangue powder (compatibility without Zuota), and to identify Renqing Mangjue compatibility with Zuota or not. [Methods] High-performance liquid chromatography was adopted. Chromatographic column was DIKMA diamonsil (4 . 6 mm X 250 mm, 5 p.m) ; flow rate was 1 mlLmin ; column temperature was 30 ° ; mobile phase was methanol-water with gradient elution. [Results] A total of 18 common fingerprint peaks were obtained. As for the petroleum ether parts of Renqing Mangue and Renqing Mague powder (compatibility without Zuota), eiggt characteristic peas were obtained. [Conclusions] Characteristic fingerprints of chloroform parts of Renqing Mangue and Renqing Mangue powder (compatibility without Zuota) could be obtained by the high-performance liquid chromatography. Therefore, the Renqing Mangue and Renqing Mague powder (compatibility without Zuota) could be identified according to their characteristic peaks.
<br>Display Omitted<br>• Conversion of waste buckthorn branches to a value-added bio-carbon product. • Practical adsorbent for removal and destruction of DC contaminants. • Consecutive biosorption and heterogeneous Fenton oxidation regeneration cycles. • Composite biosorbent with β-FeOOH nanoparticles and in-situ catalytic regeneration properties.<br>Akaganeite (β-FeOOH) nanoparticles were successfully anchored on the surface of porous sea buckthorn biocarbon (SBC) via a simple low-temperature hydrothermal process without use of surfactants or external forces. The SBC@β-FeOOH composite was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). On the basis of characterization methods, a possible mechanism of formation of the SBC@β-FeOOH composite was discussed. The SBC@β-FeOOH composite was used in fixed-bed columns for the effective removal of doxycycline (DC) from an aqueous solution, by the synergistic effect of adsorption and subsequent Fenton-like oxidation reaction, which oxidized the sorbed DC. The effects of inlet DC concentration (22-32 mg/L) feed flow rate (1-3 mL/min) SBC@β-FeOOH bed depth (0.7-1.5 cm) and pH (2-11) on the adsorption breakthrough profiles were investigated. The adsorption process was controlled by the ionic speciation of the adsorbate DC and the available binding sites of SBC@β-FeOOH. It was simulated by the Thomas and Yoon-Nelson models under different conditions. The bed of SBC@β-FeOOH saturated with DC was readily regenerated, in situ, by a heterogeneous Fenton-like oxidation reaction. The synergistic effect resulting from the biosorption nature of SBC and the catalytic oxidation properties of the supported β-FeOOH nanoparticles results in a new promising composite material for water treatment and purification.
Zuotais regarded as the king of Tibetan medicine. However, the major starting material ofZuotais mercury, which is one very toxic heavy metal. This has aroused serious doubts on the biosafety ofZuotacontaining drugs. In this study, we quantified the Hg contents in fourZuotasamples, monitored the release of Hg in simulated gastric/intestinal juice and evaluated their cytotoxicity to Caco-2 cells. Our results showed that the Hg contents inZuotasamples were in the range of 566–676 mg/g. Fortunately, the release of Hg fromZuotasamples was very low in simulated gastric juice, and much lower in simulated intestinal juice. Direct contact ofZuotawith Caco-2 cells led to dose-dependent cytotoxicity, including activity loss and membrane leakage. The toxicity was closely related to apoptosis, because the caspase 3/7 levels of Caco-2 cells increased after the exposure toZuota. Interestingly,Zuotasamples inhibited the oxidative stress at low concentrations, but the toxicity could be relived by antioxidants. The possible toxicity should be attributed to the cellular uptake ofZuotaparticulates. Beyond the cytotoxicity, significant differences amongZuotasamples from different institutions were observed, suggesting that the preparation process ofZuotahad meaningful influence of its biosafety. The implications to the safety and clinical applications ofZuotaare discussed. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]