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Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) is a promising intervention to prevent depressive relapse. Yet beyond efficacy studies, little is known regarding the mechanisms that could be modified through MBCT. Objectives of the present study were twofold: determine whether cognitive functioning was altered among patients remitted from depression at admission in a MBCT trial; and document possible changes during the trial and follow-up. In a cross-sectional perspective, cognitive functioning (autobiographical memory, shifting capacities, dysfunctional attitudes, mindful attention awareness and rumination habits) was first compared between 36 patients remitted from depression, 20 acutely depressed patients and 20 control participants. In a longitudinal perspective, changes in the remitted sample were explored during a MBCT plus Treatment As Usual versus Treatment As Usual randomized controlled trial and 9-month follow-up. Performances of remitted patients were similar to the ones of control participants for autobiographical memories, shifting capacities, and mindful attention awareness, whereas levels of rumination and dysfunctional attitudes were significantly elevated. Participation in the MBCT program was accompanied with a significant decrease of dysfunctional attitudes that continued up to 9-month postintervention. No other change was observed that was specific to MBCT. Results suggest that MBCT might help people to identify dysfunctional attitudes at a very early stage and to avoid engaging further in these attitudes.
Importance Relapse prevention in recurrent depression is a significant public health problem, and antidepressants are the current first-line treatment approach. Identifying an equally efficacious nonpharmacological intervention would be an important development.Objective To conduct a meta-analysis on individual patient data to examine the efficacy of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) compared with usual care and other active treatments, including antidepressants, in treating those with recurrent depression. Data Sources English-language studies published or accepted for publication in peer-reviewed journals identified from EMBASE, PubMed/Medline, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Scopus, and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register from the first available year to November 22, 2014. Searches were conducted from November 2010 to November 2014. Study Selection Randomized trials of manualized MBCT for relapse prevention in recurrent depression in full or partial remission that compared MBCT with at least 1 non-MBCT treatment, including usual care. Data Extraction and Synthesis This was an update to a previous meta-analysis. We screened 2555 new records after removing duplicates. Abstracts were screened for full-text extraction (S.S.) and checked by another researcher (T.D.). There were no disagreements. Of the original 2555 studies, 766 were evaluated against full study inclusion criteria, and we acquired full text for 8. Of these, 4 studies were excluded, and the remaining 4 were combined with the 6 studies identified from the previous meta-analysis, yielding 10 studies for qualitative synthesis. Full patient data were not available for 1 of these studies, resulting in 9 studies with individual patient data, which were included in the quantitative synthesis. Results Of the 1258 patients included, the mean (SD) age was 47.1 (11.9) years, and 944 (75.0%) were female. A 2-stage random effects approach showed that patients receiving MBCT had a reduced risk of depressive relapse within a 60-week follow-up period compared with those who did not receive MBCT (hazard ratio, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.58-0.82). Furthermore, comparisons with active treatments suggest a reduced risk of depressive relapse within a 60-week follow-up period (hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.64-0.97). Using a 1-stage approach, sociodemographic (ie, age, sex, education, and relationship status) and psychiatric (ie, age at onset and number of previous episodes of depression) variables showed no statistically significant interaction with MBCT treatment. However, there was some evidence to suggest that a greater severity of depressive symptoms prior to treatment was associated with a larger effect of MBCT compared with other treatments. Conclusions and Relevance Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy appears efficacious as a treatment for relapse prevention for those with recurrent depression, particularly those with more pronounced residual symptoms. Recommendations are made concerning how future trials can address remaining uncertainties and improve the rigor of the field.
Derived from ancient Buddhist and Yoga practices, mindfulness is a mental state characterized by nonjudgmental awareness of the present moment experience while encouraging openness, curiosity, and acceptance. This skill can be learned through practice, and has be integrated in different clinical approaches.Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) is a structured group programme conceived to alleviate suffering associated with physical, psychosomatic and psychiatric disorders. A systematic review of RCTs on MBSR supports that this approach improves mental health in non-clinical and clinical populations. In clinical populations with psychiatric disorders, MBSR has some benefit as it reduces symptoms of distress, anxiety and depression or teaches patients coping skills to handle these symptoms. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT), which is an adaptation of the MBSR programme, incorporates elements of cognitive therapy to prevent depressive relapse. Meta-analysis indicate that MBCT is an effective intervention for relapse prevention in patients with recurrent major depressive disorder in remission, at least in case of three or more previous episodes. Moreover, in two studies, MBCT was at least as effective as maintenance antidepressant medication. While MBCT is a relapse prevention programme for patients in full remission, recent data suggest that it may be indicated also for people in partial remission, including those with quite significant residual depressive symptoms.
BackgroundThe present open study investigates the feasibility of Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) in groups solely composed of bipolar patients of various subtypes. MBCT has been mostly evaluated with remitted unipolar depressed patients and little is known about this treatment in bipolar disorder. Methods Bipolar outpatients (type I, II and NOS) were included and evaluated for depressive and hypomanic symptoms, as well as mindfulness skills before and after MBCT. Patients’ expectations before the program, perceived benefit after completion and frequency of mindfulness practice were also recorded. Results Of 23 included patients, 15 attended at least four MBCT sessions. Most participants reported having durably, moderately to very much benefited from the program, although mindfulness practice decreased over time. Whereas no significant increase of mindfulness skills was detected during the trial, change of mindfulness skills was significantly associated with change of depressive symptoms between pre- and post-MBCT assessments. Conclusions MBCT is feasible and well perceived among bipolar patients. Larger and randomized controlled studies are required to further evaluate its efficacy, in particular regarding depressive and (hypo)manic relapse prevention. The mediating role of mindfulness on clinical outcome needs further examination and efforts should be provided to enhance the persistence of meditation practice with time.