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Several mind body medicine interventions require an active participation of the practitioners. We intended to develop a questionnaire to operationalize and measure the "inner correspondence" of individuals practicing Yoga or Eurythmy Therapy. In an anonymous cross-sectional study we enrolled 501 individuals (61% yoga). Exploratory factor analysis (study 1) of the 12-item instrument (Cronbach's alpha = .84) pointed to a 3-factor solution, with one major scale and good internal consistency (alpha = .83) and two minor scales with weak internal consistency. To improve the quality of the main scale, we added 8 new items which were tested in a sample of 135 individuals (study 2:71% Yoga). Factor analysis confirmed a 12-item single factor (alpha = .95), that is, Inner Correspondence/Peaceful Harmony with Practices (ICPH). The scale correlated strongly with mindfulness (FMI; r > .50), moderately with life and patient satisfaction (BMLSS; r between .32 and .43), and weakly negative with symptom score (VAS; r = - .23). In conclusion, the scale ICPH was confirmed as a relevant tool to measure the inner correspondence and feelings of peacefulness with practices. It can be used in clinical studies to assess the efficacy of mind-body practices involving physical movements.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a mindfulness-based day care clinic group program for cancer survivors on health-related quality of life and mental health; and to investigate which psychological variables are associated with changes in health variables. One hundred seventeen cancer survivors (91.0 % female; mean age 53.9 +/- 10.7 years; 65.0 % breast cancer; mean time since diagnosis 27.2 +/- 46.5 months) participated in an 11-week mindfulness-based day care clinic group program, 6 h per week. The intervention incorporated mindfulness-based meditation, yoga, cognitive-behavioral techniques, and lifestyle modification. Outcome measures including health-related quality of life (EORTC QLQ-C30), depression and anxiety (HADS); and psychological variables including life satisfaction (BMLSS), mindfulness (FMI), adaptive coping styles (AKU), spiritual/religious attitudes in dealing with illness (SpREUK), and interpretation of illness (IIQ) were assessed before, after, and 3 months after the intervention. Using mixed linear models, significant improvements in global health status, physical functioning, role functioning, emotional functioning, cognitive functioning, and social functioning were found. Cancer-related symptoms, including fatigue, pain, insomnia, constipation, anxiety, and depression, also improved significantly. Mindfulness, life satisfaction, health satisfaction, all coping styles, all spiritual/religious attitudes, and interpretation of illness as something of value increased; interpretation of illness as punishment decreased significantly (all p < 0.05). Improved outcomes were associated with increases in psychological variables, mainly life satisfaction, health satisfaction, and trust in medical help (R (2) = 7.3-43.6 %). Supportive mindfulness-based interventions can be considered as an effective means to improve cancer survivors' physical and mental health. Functional improvements are associated with improved satisfaction and coping styles.
Yoga has been found effective in the treatment of chronic low back pain. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of lyengar yoga in chronic neck pain by means of a randomized clinical trial. Seventy-seven patients (aged 47.9 +/- 7.9, 67 female) with chronic neck pain who scored >40 mm on a 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS) were randomized to a 9-week lyengar yoga program with weekly 90-minute classes (n = 38) or to a self-care/exercise program (n = 38). Patients were examined at baseline and after 4 and 10 weeks. The primary outcome measure was change of mean pain at rest (VAS) from baseline to week 10. Secondary outcomes included pain at motion, functional disability, quality of life (QOL), and psychological outcomes. Twelve patients in the yoga group and 11 patients in the self-care/exercise group were lost to follow-up, with higher study nonadherence in the self-care group (5 versus 10 patients). Mean pain at rest was reduced from 44.3 +/- 20.1 to 13.0 +/- 11.6 at week 10 by yoga and from 41.9 +/- 21.9 to 34.4 +/- 21.1 by self-care/exercise (group difference: -20.1, 95% confidence interval: -30.0, -10.1; P < .001). Pain at motion was reduced from 53.4 18.5 to 22.4 +/- 18.7 at week 10 by yoga and from 49.4 +/- 22.8 to 39.9 +/- 21.5 by self-care/exercise (group difference: -18.7, 95% confidence interval: -29.3, -8.1; P < .001). Significant treatment effects of yoga were also found for pain-related apprehension, disability, QOL, and psychological outcomes. Sensitivity analyses suggested minimal influence of dropout rates. Both programs were well tolerated. In this preliminary trial, yoga appears to be an effective treatment in chronic neck pain with possible additional effects on psychological well-being and QOL. The effectiveness of yoga in chronic neck pain should be further tested by comparative effectiveness studies with longer observation periods. Perspective: This article presents the results of a randomized controlled trial on the clinical effects of a 9-week yoga program or self-care exercise in patients with chronic neck pain. Yoga led to superior pain relief and functional improvements and might be a useful treatment option for chronic neck pain. (C) 2012 by the American Pain Society