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BACKGROUND:A growing body of research has examined the intersection of mindfulness and substance use, and a large body of research has examined the relation between mindfulness and anxiety. Unfortunately, no research has been conducted on the relation between mindfulness and anxiety symptoms among young adults (i.e., 18-25 years old) in treatment for substance use. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relation between one facet of mindfulness, moment-to-moment attention, and anxiety (panic and generalized anxiety) among young adults in treatment for substance use. METHODS: Preexisting patient records from a residential substance use treatment center for young adults were reviewed (N = 148). Patient records were examined from May 2012 to August 2013, which represented all young adult patients admitted to the residential treatment facility during this time. RESULTS: Findings demonstrated that moment-to-moment mindful attention was associated with symptoms of panic disorder and generalized anxiety disorder even after controlling for gender, age, education, alcohol use, drug use, and the shared variance in generalized and panic symptoms. There were no gender differences in moment-to-moment mindful attention. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide preliminary evidence that moment-to-moment mindful attention is associated with panic and generalized anxiety in young adults in substance use treatment. Combined with previous research on mindfulness-based interventions among adults in substance use treatment, research should examine the efficacy of mindfulness-based interventions for young adults in substance use treatment.
One of the most important goals and outcomes of social life is to attain status in the groups to which we belong. Such face-to-face status is defined by the amount of respect, influence, and prominence each member enjoys in the eyes of the others. Three studies investigated personological determinants of status in social groups (fraternity, sorority, and dormitory), relating the Big Five personality traits and physical attractiveness to peer ratings of status. High Extraversion substantially predicted elevated status for both sexes. High Neuroticism, incompatible with male gender norms, predicted lower status in men. None of the other Big Five traits predicted status. These effects were independent of attractiveness, which predicted higher status only in men. Contrary to previous claims, women's status ordering was just as stable as men's but emerged later. Discussion focuses on personological pathways to attaining status and on potential mediators.