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OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of Tibetan medicine-Twenty Wei Chenxiang Pill interfering with serum ET-1 level, in order to confirm that ET-1 is involved to the pathogenesis of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension.METHODS: 165 Wistar rats were randomly divided into high altitude control group,Tibetan medicine-Twenty Wei Chenxiang Pill group and plain control group. The physiological signal acquisition system was used to record pulmonary arterial pressure, and RV/(LV + S) ratio were caculated. Serum HIF-1alpha and ET-1 protein levels were determined by the method of ELISA, and ETA protein levels in lung tissue were determined by Western Blot method. RESULTS: Compared with the high altitude group,in the rats of Tibetan medicine-Twenty Wei Chenxiang Pill group,the pulmonary arterial pressure decreased significantly from the seventh day and the seventh day (P < 0.01), the RV/(LV + S) ratio and serum HIF-1alpha levels decreased significantly from the third day (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01), the serum ET-1 levels decreased significantly from the third day (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01), and the expression of ETA protein decreased significantly from the beginning (P < 0.01 or P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: ET-1 is one of the important factors causing pulmonary artery pressure increasing and right ventricular wall thickening, which plays a role in hypoxic pulmonary artery only involved in the early period hypoxia, but not in the later period. Tibetan medicine--twenty Wei Chenxiang Pill can prevent the pulmonary artery hypertension and the right ventricular wall thickening in rats, and its mechanism may be related to the direct inhibition of ET-1 and protein levels of ETA or the indirect downregulation of ET-1 level and ETA through inhibition of HIF-la level.