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Objective. This pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) assesses Person‐Based Cognitive Therapy (PBCT), an integration of cognitive therapy and mindfulness, as a treatment for chronic depression.Method. Twenty‐eight participants with chronic depression were randomly allocated to treatment as usual (TAU) or PBCT group plus TAU. Assessments of depression (Beck Depression Inventory, BDI‐II) and mindfulness (Southampton Mindfulness Questionnaire) were conducted before and after therapy. Results. Intention‐to‐treat analysis found significant group by time interactions for both depression and mindfulness. Secondary analyses showed depression and mindfulness scores significantly improved for PBCT participants but not for TAU participants, with 64% of PBCT participants showing reliable improvement in depression, compared with 0% of TAU participants. Conclusions. PBCT is a promising treatment for chronic depression. Findings suggest a full RCT would be warranted.
Background: The clinical literature cautions against use of meditation by people with psychosis. There is, however, evidence for acceptance-based therapy reducing relapse, and some evidence for clinical benefits of mindfulness groups for people with distressing psychosis, though no data on whether participants became more mindful. Aims: To assess feasibility of randomized evaluation of group mindfulness therapy for psychosis, to replicate clinical gains observed in one small uncontrolled study, and to assess for changes in mindfulness. Method: Twenty-two participants with current distressing psychotic experiences were allocated at random between group-based mindfulness training and a waiting list for this therapy. Mindfulness training comprised twice-weekly sessions for 5 weeks, plus home practice (meditation CDs were supplied), followed by 5 weeks of home practice. Results: There were no significant differences between intervention and waiting-list participants. Secondary analyses combining both groups and comparing scores before and after mindfulness training revealed significant improvement in clinical functioning (p = .013) and mindfulness of distressing thoughts and images (p = .037). Conclusions: Findings on feasibility are encouraging and secondary analyses replicated earlier clinical benefits and showed improved mindfulness of thoughts and images, but not voices.
The study's objective was to assess the impact on clinical functioning of group based mindfulness training alongside standard psychiatric care for people with current, subjectively distressing psychosis. Data are presented from the first 10 people to complete one of four Mindfulness Groups, each lasting six sessions. People were taught mindfulness of the breath, and encouraged to let unpleasant experiences come into awareness, to observe and note them, and let them go without judgment, clinging or struggle. There was a significant pre-post drop in scores on the CORE (z=−2.655, p=.008). Secondary data indicated improvement in mindfulness skills, and the subjective importance of mindfulness to the group process (N=11). The results are encouraging and warrant further controlled outcome and process research.
This study investigates the psychological process involved when people with current distressing psychosis learned to respond mindfully to unpleasant psychotic sensations (voices, thoughts, and images). Sixteen participants were interviewed on completion of a mindfulness group program. Grounded theory methodology was used to generate a theory of the core psychological process using a systematically applied set of methods linking analysis with data collection. The theory inducted describes the experience of relating differently to psychosis through a three-stage process: centering in awareness of psychosis; allowing voices, thoughts, and images to come and go without reacting or struggle; and reclaiming power through acceptance of psychosis and the self. The conceptual and clinical applications of the theory and its limits are discussed.