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Abstract Juniperus pingii var. wilsonii has been traditionally used in Tibetan medicine for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. In the present study, J. pingii var. wilsonii polysaccharides (JPWP), with high content of d ‑galacturonic acid, showed potent anti-complementary activity in vitro and significantly attenuated acute lung injury (ALI) induced by H1N1 influenza virus in vivo through reducing the inflammatory responses, alleviating oxidative stress and inhibiting the activation of complement. Thus, anti-complementary activity-guided fractionation of JPWP led to the isolation of an acidic homogeneous polysaccharide, JPWP-PS, whose structure was further elucidated by acid hydrolysis, PMP derivation, methylation and NMR analysis. JPWP-PS had potent anti-complementary activity with the CH 50 value of 0.073 ± 0.009 mg/mL, and was characterized by the residues of T-Ara f -(1→, →3)-Ara f -(1→, →3,5)-Ara f -(1→, →3)-Gal p -(1→ and →4)-Gal p A-(1→. Graphical abstract Unlabelled Image Highlights • Juniperus pingii var. wilsonii polysaccharides (JPWP) improved survival rate of H1N1 virus infected mice. • JPWP treated acute lung injury via inhibiting inflammatory responses, oxidative stress and activation of complement. • A homogeneous acidic polysaccharide with potent anti-complementary activity was isolated from JPWP. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

The leaves and twigs of Juniperus pingii var. wilsonii (Cupressaceae) smell aromatic and are traditionally used as the Tibetan medicine Xuba. Their essential oil obtained by ultrasonic-assisted hydrodistillation and volatiles collected by GC headspace technique were analyzed and compared by GC-MS. The analyses revealed the presence of thirty-nine components in the essential oil, representing 95.8% in content of the total oil, mainly including sabinene (22.6%), elemol (15.5%) and (-)-terpinen-4-ol (9.6%). Thirty-eight components accounting for 99.4% of the headspace volatiles were identified, mainly including sabinene (32.5%), β-pinene (21.9%) and α-thujene (10.3%). The compositions of the oil and headspace volatiles were quite similar, and twenty-five compounds identified were in common, which was 91.3% of the oil and 96.0% of the headspace volatiles in content. The essential oil could obviously inhibit Nitric oxide production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells with no significant effect on cell viability, indicating its good anti-inflammatory activity.