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High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was successfully applied to the isolation and purification of four xanthone glycosides from Halenia elliptica, a plant widely used in traditional Tibetan medicine. The introduction of HSCCC greatly improved the efficiency of compounds preparation from Halenia elliptica. The following were obtained from 100 mg of crude sample in one-step separation: 2.5 mg of 1-O-primeverosyl-2,3,4,5,7-pentamethoxyxanthone, 7.0 mg of 1-O-primeverosyl-2,3,4,7- tetramethoxyxanthone, 10.0 mg of 1-O-primeverosyl-2,3,5-trimethoxyxanthone (demethyoxyhaleniaside), and 8.5 mg of 1-O-primeverosyl-2,3,4,5-tetramethoxyxanthone. HPLC analysis showed that each target compound had a purity of over 98%, and UV, 1H NMR, and 13C NMR data confirmed the component chemical structures.

Although the rhizomes of Rheum nobile Hook. f. et Thoms (Polygonaceae) are widely used in Tibetan medicine, no previous investigations regarding the biological activities and rarely chemical constituents of this plant have been reported. As part of an ongoing search for novel bioactive agents, a phytochemical investigation of R. nobile led to the isolation of two new compounds Rheumone B (1) and piceatannol-4'-O-β-D-(6″-O-acetyl)-glucoside (2), together with 15 known compounds by gel filtration over Sephadex LH-20 and preparative HPLC. Their structures were determined by combined spectroscopic methods. Compounds 1-10 were evaluated for their ability to scavenge 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydzyl (DPPH) radical and compounds 7-10 showed relatively strong scavenging abilities with IC50 values from 2.76 μM to 11.80 μM. In conclusion, naphthalene glycosides, stilbene glycosides, flavanols, especially anthraquinones are main chemical constituents of this plant. The ability to scavenge DPPH radical of compound 8 was the highest among compounds 1-10.

Abstract Ethnopharmacological relevance Qiwei Tiexie capsule (QWTX) is a representative prescription of Tibetan medicine, which is widely used for long-term treatment of chronic liver disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Aim of the study This study explored the effects and mechanism of QWTX on 3T3-L1 adipocytes and NAFLD. Materials and methods The 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and NAFLD rat model were used in the study. In 3T3-L1 cells, the cytotoxicity of QWTX was tested by CKK-8, and glucose uptake and fat acid oxidation were assessed by 2-deoxy-D-[3H] glucose and [1–14C] palmitic acid, respectively. The expression levels of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1), liver X receptor α (LXRα), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), ikappa B α (IκBα), and AKT were determined by PCR and western blot. NAFLD was established by the administration of fat emulsion and sucrose for 9 weeks. The effects of QWTX on lipid metabolism, liver function, and hepatic morphology were observed in NAFLD rats by HE and transmission electron microscope. Serum level of nitric oxide (NO) and fee fatty acid (FFA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in the liver, as well as the expression levels of Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), NF-κB, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), CPT-1, LXRα, PPARα, PPARβ/δ, PPARγ, and iNOS were all detected. Results QWTX showed no cell cytotoxicity in 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cells, and increased the 14CO 2 production rate to 4.15, which indicated the reducing the fatty accumulation. In NAFLD, QWTX attenuated liver steatosis, fat vacuoles and inflammation from the HE staining and electron micrograph tests. For the oxidative stress biomarkers, serum FFA level was reduced and serum NO level was enhanced after QWTX treatment. In liver tissue, SOD was decreased and MDA was significantly increased in NAFLD, and both of them were restored by QWTX. NF-κB and CYP2E1 were also upregulated in NAFLD, while downregulated by QWTX. Downregulation of LXRα, PPARγ and iNOS by QWTX were both observed in the 3T3-L1 adipocytes and NAFLD model. Conclusions QWTX protected the liver injury in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes and NAFLD by regulating the LXRα, PPARγ, and NF-κB-iNOS-NO signal pathways. Graphical abstract Image 1 [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Qumazi is a commonly used Tibetan medicine. With a long history, it can be found in the Four Medical Tantras written by gYu-thog rNying-ma Yon-tan mGon-po since the 8th century AD. Qumazi grows in mudflats and fields, including species growing in highlands, lowlands, mountains and farmlands. According to records in Crystal Beads Materia Medica, it features green sword-shaped leaves, thin stems with red veins, inserted panicles, white chicken-like flowers and copper needle row-like roots. However, there are many inconsistent morphological descriptions for Qumazi plants in many Chinese versions of Tibetan medicine books. In this article, after studying ancient and modern Tibetan medicine books, consulting experts and conducting surveys, the authors confirmed that Qumazi belongs to Rheum of Polygonaceae, including Rheum nobile Hook. f. et. Thoms, R. globulosum Gage, R. alexandrae Hook. f. et. Thoms, R. pumilum Maxim and R. delavayi Franch. In some regions, Qumazi is substituted by R. spiciforme Royle and R. przewalskyi Losinsk. After the Chinese version of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau Drug Illustrations was published in 1972, Qumazi has been miswritten as P. sibiricum Laxm in many Chinese versions of Tibetan medicine books, perhaps because P. sibiricum Laxm has many similar features with Qumazi as described in Crystal Beads Materia Medica and then is mistranslated from Tibetan to Chinese versions. According to records, Qumazi can reduce edema and is mainly applied to treat the minamata disease in clinic.