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Graphical abstract Highlights • Five anthocyanidins are identified in Lycium ruthenicum Murray by UPLC-Q-Orbitrap MS. • Five anthocyanins are identified in Lycium ruthenicum Murray by UPLC-Q-Orbitrap MS. • Anthocyanin extracts hanve the activity of anti-gout. • Petunidin-3-glu has the activity of anti-gout. Abstract Lycium ruthenicum Murray (LR) represents an agricultural cash crop found in Northwest China and has been used in traditional folk medicine for a long time. However, detailed qualitative and quantitative analyses of LR anthocyanins, as well as their pharmacological research, remain scarce. In this work, we established a rapid method for the simultaneous identification and quantification of six anthocyanidins and six anthocyanins from LR via UPLC-quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-Orbitrap MS) analysis. Finally, five anthocyanidins and five anthocyanins were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed. Among these, 10 constituents (delphinidin-3-glu, cyanidin-3-glu, petunidin-3-glu, peonidin-3-glu, malvidin-3-glu, delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, pelargonidin and malvidin) were detected and petunidin-3-glu proved to be the predominant species in LR. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory effects of anthocyanin extracts and petunidin-3-glu were investigated using a rat model involving gouty arthritis induced by monosodium urate. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-18 (IL-18), prostaglandin E2 (PE2), cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) enzymes in serum, the paw COX-1 mRNA expression and paw volume could be determined to be significantly increased in rats suffering from gouty arthritis induced by monosodium urate. However, these indicators were found to be significantly reduced after treatment with anthocyanin extracts (200 mg/kg b.wt, p.o.) and petunidin-3-glu (40 mg/kg b.wt, p.o.). Taken in concert, our study shows that anthocyanin extracts and petunidin-3-glu may significantly reduce monosodium urate crystal-induced inflammation. Use and administration of these compounds may be potentially valuable for the further development and clinical applicability of the active compounds in this plant.
Lycium ruthenicum Murr. (LR) is a perennial shrub commonly used as a nutritional food and medicine. Herein, we identified 12 anthocyanins from LR, with petunidin derivatives constituting approximately 97% of the total anthocyanin content. Furthermore, the potential mechanism of anthocyanins exerting neuroprotective effects in d-galactose (d-gal)-treated rats was explored. Behavioral results showed that anthocyanins relieved d-gal-induced memory disorder. Additionally, anthocyanins reduced receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and suppressed oxidative stress caused by d-gal. Anthocyanins suppressed microgliosis and astrocytosis and reduced the overexpression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), interleukin-1-β (IL-1β), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Moreover, anthocyanins lowered C-jun N-terminal kinase ( p-JNK), caspase-3 levels, and the B-cell lymphoma 2-associated X protein/B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bax/Bcl-2) ratio. Thus, anthocyanins from LR attenuated memory disfunction, neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration caused by d-gal, possibly through the RAGE/NF-κB/JNK pathway, representing a promising, safe candidate for prevention and therapy of neurodegenerative diseases.
• Simultaneously identified and quantified 18 phenolic compounds from LR fruit by UPLC-Q-Orbitrap MS. • Catechin, naringenin and 9 phenolic acids are the first time to conduct qualitative and quantitative analysis in LR. • Total phenolics content and total anthocyanin content were determined. • The antioxidant activities in vitro of the LR were also evaluated.<br><b>Lycium ruthenicum</b> Murray (LR) is a functional food, and it has long been used in traditional folk medicine. However, detailed qualitative and quantitative analyses related to its phenolic compounds remains scarce. This work reports, for the first time, the establishment of a rapid method for simultaneous identification and quantification of 25 phenolic compounds by UPLC-quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-Orbitrap MS). This method was validated by LODs, LOQs, precision, repeatability, stability, mean recovery, recovery range and RSD. The confirmed method was applied to the analysis of phenolic compounds in LR. Finally, 18 phenolic compounds in LR were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed. Among them, 11 constituents were detected for the first time, which included two flavonoids (catechin and naringenin) and seven phenolic acids (gallic acid, vanillic acid, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, veratronic acid, benzoic acid, ellagic acid and salicylic acid). Moreover, Phloretin and protocatechuate, belonging to the dihydrochalcone flavonoid and protocatechuic acid respectively, were also identified and quantified. The total phenolics content (20.17 ± 2.82 mg/g) and the total anthocyanin content (147.43 ± 1.81 mg/g) were determined. In addition, the antioxidant activities of the LR extract were evaluated through 2,2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and total antioxidant activity (T-AOC) assays.
• Extracts from <b>Lycium ruthenicum</b> Murr. fruit were obtained by UAE. • Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of obtained extracts were simultaneously optimized by RSM. • Optimum parameters: time 30 min, power 100 W, solvent-sample ratio 40 mL/g, ethanol 33%. • The extracts contained phenolic acids, identified and quantified by HPLC.<br><b>Lycium ruthenicum</b> Murr. (LR) is a functional food that plays an important role in anti-oxidation due to its high level of phenolic compounds. This study aims to optimize ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of obtained extracts from LR using response surface methodology (RSM). A four-factor-three-level Box-Behnken design (BBD) was employed to discuss the following extracting parameters: extraction time (<b>X</b> 1), ultrasonic power (<b>X</b> 2), solvent to sample ratio (<b>X</b> 3) and solvent concentration (<b>X</b> 4). The analysis of variance (ANOVA) results revealed that the solvent to sample ratio had a significant influence on all responses, while the extraction time had no statistically significant effect on phenolic compounds. The optimum values of the combination of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities were obtained for <b>X</b> 1 = 30 min, <b>X</b> 2 = 100 W, <b>X</b> 3 = 40 mL/g, and <b>X</b> 4 = 33% (v/v). Five phenolic acids, including chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid, <b>p</b>-coumaric acid and ferulic acid, were analyzed by HPLC. Our results indicated that optimization extraction is vital for the quantification of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in LR, which may be contributed to large-scale industrial applications and future pharmacological activities research.
<br>Display Omitted<br>• A new protocol of synchronous determination of phenolic acids (PAs) was proposed by RP-HPLC-UV with double-wavelength. • The validated results demonstrated that the proposed method was feasible to determine PAs in plant samples. • The protocol was applied for analysis PAs in <b>Caragana korshinskii</b> Kom. which was mainly rich in chlorogenic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid. • Total content of PAs in leaves was the highest compared with that of flowers and bark.<br>The utilization of <b>Caragana korshinskii</b> Kom. (CK) is currently concentrated on its ecological and fuel functions. Little attention has been devoted to the analysis of their phenolic acid (PA) components. To obtain more data for further utilization of CK, a new analysis protocol was tested to determine PAs synchronously by RP-HPLC-UV with double-wavelength (280 nm and 320 nm) detection. Specifically, separation of PA components was performed on a Hypersil Gold C18 reverse phase column with gradient elution. A four-factor-three-level Box-Behnken design was implemented for optimization of PA extraction. The results demonstrated that CK were rich primarily in chlorogenic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid. The total content of PAs in CK leaves was the highest compared with its other parts. The distribution of total flavonoid content of CK was leaves > flowers > bark, while that of the total phenolic content of CK was flowers > leaves > bark.