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<p>This article looks at the early uses of two metaphors for enlightenment, a bird still in the egg and a newborn lion, as well as later controversies surrounding the use and meaning of these metaphors. The metaphors were employed by Indian, Tibetan, and Chinese Buddhists, most famously in accounts of the debate between Indian and Chinese Buddhists at the Samyé (bsam yas) monastery in Tibet. Controversy often stemmed from debate as to whether or not the imagery conveyed a notion of "simultaneous" or "all-at-once" (cig car ba) enlightenment. (Ben Deitle 2006-02-23)</p>

In tracing the early history of Penpo Nalendra ('phan po na len+d+ra, aka 'phan yul na len+d+ra) Monastery, Jackson provides accounts of its first eight abbots and of the conflicts the monastery had with Gelukpa (dge lugs pa) monasteries in the late 1480s. Included is a Tibetan history of Nalendra, a listing of the traditional divisions and estate holdings of the monastery, and a listing of more recent abbots.(Kevin Vose 2004-04-06)

<p>In tracing the early history of Penpo Nalendra ('phan po na len+d+ra, aka 'phan yul na len+d+ra) Monastery, Jackson provides accounts of its first eight abbots and of the conflicts the monastery had with Gelukpa (dge lugs pa) monasteries in the late 1480s. Included is a Tibetan history of Nalendra, a listing of the traditional divisions and estate holdings of the monastery, and a listing of more recent abbots.(Kevin Vose 2004-04-06)</p>

The article starts with the paragraph on Mustang by a Mustangi author. In the native language, Mustang (smon thang) refers only to the small walled capital city of the larger territory of Lo (go bo). Actually Lo's territory embraced all of the upper Kali Gandaki valley, from what is now called Baragaon up to the highest elevations in its watershed. The article also traces some of the history of Ngari. Before Mustang's inclusion into a unified Nepal, the people of Lo considered their land to be a border region of Ngari, a general place name designating most of western Tibet. The author consulted local historiography for the article. (Rajeev Ranjan Singh 2007-01-10)

<p>"Analysis of the debate over mahāmudrā between Sa skya pas and Bka' brgyud pas; contains much useful information on and extracts from the writings of Sgam po pa and Zhang tshal pa" (Roger R. Jackson, “Mahāmudrā,” in Encyclopedia of Religion, ed. Lindsay Jones, 2nd ed. (Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2005), vol. 8, p. 5601).</p>

<p>The article looks to the <em>Molla of Tsarang</em>, and brings to light the information included in the text regarding the history of the kings of Lo. (Mark Premo-Hopkins 2004-04-13)</p>

<p>This paper discusses accounts of an earthquake in the western Himalayan region which is part of a geologic area known as the "Central Himalayan Seismic Gap". The author looks at four Tibetan biographies, as well as reports from India and Afghanistan, which present evidence for two large earthquakes occurring in the year 1505. The paper argues for greater attention to Tibetan sources in the study of natural events such as earthquakes. These references are valuable not only from a historical perspective but also for scientific purposes, particularly in helping scientists determine possible future seismic activity. (Ben Deitle 2006-03-09)</p>

Though compositional structure – which here means specifically the placement of divine figures – is an essential aspect of Tibetan painting, this theme has rarely been discussed or described by scholars. The conventions for depicting lineages of teachers in particular must be carefully taken into account when documenting thang kas that contain lineages with inscriptions. The historian should carry out, if possible: (1) decipherment of inscriptions, recording names; (2) historical identification of individual masters, furnishing dates if known; (3A) identification of the lineage, and (3B) listing its members in chronological order (i.e., following the sequence of lineal descent); (4) diagramming the position of all figures, following the numbering of step three. The present article classifies and describes the lineage structures found in the vast majority of paintings with lineages. Understanding lineage structure through these four steps allows the historian to identify the religious teacher and approximate generation of the patron who commissioned the painting, essential steps toward restoring the painting to its lost historical context. (Than Garson 2005-09-22)

This book is part of the first wave of historical and cultural research on Mustang. Looking at the religious and oratorical traditions of Mustang and Tibet this work helped to lay the groundwork for research in the areas.

<p>This book is part of the first wave of historical and cultural research on Mustang. Looking at the religious and oratorical traditions of Mustang and Tibet this work helped to lay the groundwork for research in the areas.</p>

A study of the evidence of the Se-rib people of the Upper Thak Khola valley. (Mark Turin 2004-06-17)

This brief article investigates the authenticity of a letter attributed to Sakya Paṇḍita (<i>sa skya paN+Dita</i>). The letter, titled <i>Bu slob rnams la spring ba</i>, has been cited by several scholars as source material on early Mongol-Tibetan relations. However, Jackson points to several factors that bring the letters authenticity into doubt, including the absence of any reference to the letter until the 16th century. Further, there are several stylistic elements of the letter which are unique among Sakya's writings. (Ben Deitle 2006-02-02)