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Recent innovations in the treatment and prevention of depression that build on the foundation of cognitivebehavioral therapy represent promising directions for clinical practice and research. Specifically, behavioral activation and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy have been a recent focus of attention. Behavioral activation is a brief, structured approach to treating acute depression that seeks to alleviate depression by promoting an individual’s contact with sources of reward through increasing activation, improving problem solving, and decreasing avoidance and other barriers to activation. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy is a brief group intervention that seeks to prevent depressive relapse by promoting mindful attention, acceptance, and skillful action to help individuals interrupt habitual cognitive and affective patterns associated with risk of relapse. Each approach is supported by at least two large-scale, randomized clinical trials; however, many important questions remain. We examine current research on both approaches by addressing the robustness of findings, the extension to novel populations, and the processes by which clinical benefit is achieved.