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This study examined developmental toxicity of different mercury compounds, including some used in traditional medicines. Medaka (Oryzias latipes) embryos were exposed to 0.001-10 µM concentrations of MeHg, HgCl2, α-HgS (Zhu Sha), and β-HgS (Zuotai) from stage 10 (6-7 hpf) to 10 days post fertilization (dpf). Of the forms of mercury in this study, the organic form (MeHg) proved the most toxic followed by inorganic mercury (HgCl2), both producing embryo developmental toxicity. Altered phenotypes included pericardial edema with elongated or tube heart, reduction of eye pigmentation, and failure of swim bladder inflation. Both α-HgS and β-HgS were less toxic than MeHg and HgCl2. Total RNA was extracted from survivors three days after exposure to MeHg (0.1 µM), HgCl2 (1 µM), α-HgS (10 µM), or β-HgS (10 µM) to examine toxicity-related gene expression. MeHg and HgCl2 markedly induced metallothionein (MT) and heme oxygenase-1 (Ho-1), while α-HgS and β-HgS failed to induce either gene. Chemical forms of mercury compounds proved to be a major determinant in their developmental toxicity.

<bold>Background: </bold>Tong Luo Hua Shi (TLHS) is a new formulation of the traditional Tibetan medicine Wu-wei-gan-lu that has been used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) for hundreds of years in China. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of TLHS in patients with RA.<bold>Methods: </bold>This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-finding study performed in patients with active RA from five medical centers. Patients received three doses (4.8, 3.6, or 2.4 g/day po) of TLHS or placebo (tid po) for 8 weeks. Blood sampling, physical examination, and assessment of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 20 % improvement (ACR20) criteria were performed before and every 2 weeks after starting treatment. The primary endpoint was the ACR20. The secondary endpoints included safety.<bold>Results: </bold>A total of 240 participants were screened and 236 patients were randomized (n = 59/group); 20 dropped out. After 8 weeks, ACR20 improvements in the TLHS 4.8 g and 3.6 g groups were significantly higher than in the placebo group (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). ACR50 improvement in the TLHS 4.8 g group was significantly higher compared with the placebo group (P < 0.01). Symptoms of RA were significantly relieved in the TLHS groups. In the TLHS groups, insomnia (n = 1), gastroenteric reactions (n = 2), arrhythmia (n = 1), and minor hepatic lesion (n = 1) were reported; in the placebo group, hepatic dysfunction (n = 1) was reported (P = 0.878).<bold>Conclusions: </bold>TLHS improved the symptoms of patients with RA according to the ACR20. Moreover, TLHS was safe.<bold>Trial Registration: </bold>Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR-TRC-12003871 . Registered on 1 January 2012. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]