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Zhuxi is a mineral medicine widely used in traditional Tibetan medicine throughout history. However, the bioactive component in Zhuxi still remains unclear. In order to enunciate the material basis of its pharmacological activity, the present research has determined the chemical component and structure of Zhuxi. X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were utilized to assay two samples of Zhuxi. XRF and ICP-OES analysis indicated that the main elements in Zhuxi are Fe, S and O, also containing some minor elements, such as Si, Na, Mg, Al, K, Ni, Ca, Ti and so on. XRD analysis suggested that the main crystal compound in Zhuxi is FeS2 (Cubic, Pa-3), also existing a few of Fe(+3)O(OH) (orthorhombic, Pbnm) and other some unknown compounds. These studies has highlighted the potential the element components and compound structures of Zhuxi, so it may be a good starting point for exploring the material basis of its pharmacological activity.

In order to reveal the chemical substance basis of pharmacodynamic effects of Zuotai, energy dispersive spectrometry of X-ray (EDX), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), synchrotron radiation X-ray absorption fine structure (SR-XAFS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) were used to analyze the elements, the chemical valence and local structure of mercury, and the chemical phase composition and micro-morphology of Zuotai. EDX and XRF analysis shows that the main elements in Zuotai are Hg and S, with some other minor elements, such as 0, Fe, Al, Cu, K, Ag, Ca, Mg etc. SR-XAFS analysis shows that: the oxidation state of mercury in Zuotai is divalence, its neighbor atoms are S, and its coordination number is four. XRD assay found that β-HgS (cubic, F-43m 216) and S8 (orthorhombic, Fddd 70) are the main phase compositions in Zuotai. Besides, it also has a small amount of C (hexagonal, P63/mmc 194), Fel.05 S0.95 (hexagonal, P63/mmc 194), Cu6S6 (hexagonal, P63/mmc 194), Cu1.8 S (cubic, F-43m 216) and so on. And it was found that the crystallinity of Zuotai is about 59%, and the amorphous morphology substance in it is about 41%. SEM and AFM detection suggests that Zuotai is a kind of ancient micro-nano drug, and its particle size is mainly in the range of 100-600 nm, even less than 100 nm, which commonly further aggregate into several to 30 µm loose amorphous particles. In summary, the present study elucidated physicochemical characterization(elements composition, coordination information of mercury, phase composition and micro-morphology) of Zuotai, and it will play a positive role in promoting the interpretation of this mysterious drug.;

The mercury in Tibetan medicine has become important focus in the research on medicine safety evaluation. The total mercury and the ionic mercury in artificial gastric juice of Tibetan medicine Dangzuo were detected by Gold Amalgam Enrichment-Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (GAE-AFS). In the present study, Tibetan medicine Dangzuo was prepared by H2SO4-KNO3 digestion system and artificial gastric juice. The established method and condition of instrument were investigated. Under the optimum experimental conditions and instrumental operation parameters, the recovery (n=6) of HgS is 99.56$ (RSD = 1.94%), the limit of detection for mercury is 0.2 ng x L(-1), the linear range is 0-500 ng x L(-1), and r = 0.9999. Then, the total mercury and the ionic mercury in artificial gastric juice in Dangzuo samples from different Tibetan regions were assayed. The result showed that the ranges of total mercury and ionic mercury in artificial gastric juice were 3.9980-16.7358 x mg x g(-1) and 45.5377-1033.9850 ng x g(-1), respectively. The analytical method mentioned above is rapid and accurate for determining the amount of mercury in Tibetan medicine Dangzuo.

To discuss the relationship between metallic element and disease through determine the elementals in Tibetan Herbal Medicines and Tibetan Medicine Preparations that have obvious effect on hepatobiliary diseases by Synchrotron Radiation X-ray Source, then to reveal the substance foundation of pharmacological action. The results show that all the Tibetan Herbal Medicines used in the experiment have the 9 kinds of metallic elements of potassium(K), calcium(Ca), titanium(Ti), vanadium(V), chromium(Cr), manganese(Mn), ferrum(Fe), zinc(Zn) and lead(Pb), the content of the elements are in the ppb or ppm level though the element constitute and the content have obvious difference. Tibetan Medicine Preparations have another 6 kinds of metallic elements of nickel(Ni), copper(Cu), rubidium(Rb), mercury(Hg), cobalt(Co), gallium(Ga) and 1 kind of nonmetallic elements of arsenic(As) when compare with Herbal Medicines, and the element constitute and the content also have obvious difference. Take advantage of SR-XRF, the test gets the basic data of elements of Tibetan Herbal Medicines and Preparations, supply the scientific support to discuss the interaction of pharmacological mechanism and the metallic elements, and find the suitability of the technique for the metallic elements detection in Tibetan Medicines.

Barley seedlings are rich in flavones that can have positive effects on people with antihypoxia and antifatigue. Lutonarin and saponarin are two major flavonoid glycosides that have unique structures in barley seedlings. This study presents a new approach for the preparation of lutonarin and saponarin from barely seedlings by membrane separation technology and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography. Preparative conditions of these two flavonoid glycosides by membrane separation technology were studied using response surface methodology. Under the optimized conditions, the total contents of these two flavonoid glycosides amounts to 17.0%.

OBJECTIVE: To establish the method of quality control for traditional Tibetan Medicine Zsuotai.METHODS: Collecting the samples of Tsuotai from Qinghai, Tibet, Sichuan, and Gansu province, to detect Hg2+ by Zsuotai reacted with HCl-HNO3 (3:1), and to determine the quantity of HgS in Zsuotai by sulfocyanate volumetric method. RESULTS: The method for the determination of HgS in Zsuotai was in good reproducibility (RSD = 0.68%). The calibration curve was linear (r = 0.9999) within -0.0002 - 0.2123 g of mercuric sulfide. The recovery was 100.94% (RSD = 0.66%). CONCLUSIONS: This method is convenient and accurate, so it can be used to establish quality control of the medicinal material.

Four common traditional tibetan medicine prescription preparations "Anzhijinghuasan, Dangzuo, Renqingchangjue and Rannasangpei" in tibetan areas were selected as study objects in the present study. The purpose was to try to establish a kind of wet digestion and flow injection-hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-HAAS) associated analysis method for the content determinations of lead and arsenic in traditional tibetan medicine under optimized digestion and measurement conditions and determine their contents accurately. Under these optimum operating conditions, experimental results were as follows. The detection limits for lead and arsenic were 0.067 and 0.012 µg · mL(-1) respectively. The quantification limits for lead and arsenic were 0.22 and 0.041 µg · mL(-1) respectively. The linear ranges for lead and arsenic were 25-1,600 ng · mL(-1) (r = 0.9995) and 12.5-800 ng · mL(-1) (r = 0.9994) respectively. The degrees of precision(RSD) for lead and arsenic were 2.0% and 3.2% respectively. The recovery rates for lead and arsenic were 98.00%-99.98% and 96.67%-99.87% respectively. The content determination results of lead and arsenic in four traditional tibetan medicine prescription preparations were as fol- lows. The contents of lead and arsenic in Anzhijinghuasan are 0.63-0.67 µg · g(-1) and 0.32-0.33 µg · g(-1) in Anzhijinghua- san, 42.92-43.36 µg · g(-1) and 24.67-25.87 µg · g(-1) in Dangzuo, 1,611. 39-1,631.36 µg · g(-1) and 926.76-956.52 µg- g(-1) in Renqing Changjue, and 1,102.28-1,119.127 µg-g(-1) and 509.96-516.87 µg · g(-1) in Rannasangpei, respectively. This study established a method for content determination of lead and arsenic in traditional tibetan medicine, and determined the content levels of lead and arsenic in four tibetan medicine-prescription preparations accurately. In addition, these results also provide the basis for the safe and effective use of those medicines in clinic.

Zuotai (gTso thal) is a typical representative of Tibetan medicines containing heavy metals, but there is still lack of modem safety evaluation data so far. In this study, acute toxicity test, sub-acute toxicity test, one-time administration mercury distribution experiment, long-term mercury accumulative toxicity experiment and preliminary study on clinical safety of Compound Dangzuo were conducted in the hope of obtain the medicinal safety data of Zuotai. In the acute toxicity test, half of KM mice given the lethal dose of Zuotai were not died or poisoned, and LD50 was not found. The maximum tolerated dose of Zuotai was 80 g x kg(-1). In the subacute toxicity test, Zuotai could reduce ALT, AST, Crea levels in serums under low dose (13.34 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1)) and medium dose (53.36 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1)), with significant difference under low dose, and increase the levels of ALT, AST, MDA, Crea in serums under high dose (2 000 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1)); besides, the levels of BUN and GSH in serums reduced with the increase in dose of Zuotai, indicating a significant dose-effect relationship. In the one-time administration distribution experiment, the content of mercury in rat kidney, liver and lung increased after the one-time administration with Zuotai, with a significant dose-dependent relationship in kidney. In the long-term mercury accumulative toxicity experiment, KM mice were administered with equivalent doses of Zuotai for 4.5 months and then stopped drug administration for 1.5 months. Since the 2.5th month, they showed significant mercury accumulation in kidney, which gradually reduced after drug withdrawal, without significant change in mercury content in liver, spleen and brain and ALT, AST, TBIL, BUN and Crea in serum. At the 4.5th month after drug administration, KM mice showed slight structural changes in kidney, liver and spleen tissues, and gradually recovered to normal after drug withdrawal. Besides, no significant difference in weight gain was found between the Zuotai group and the control group. According to the findings of the clinical safety study of Dangzuo, after subjects administered Dangzuo under clinical dose for one month, their serum biochemical indicators, blood routine indicators and urine routine indicators showed no significant adverse change. This study proved that traditional Tibetan medicine Zuotai was slightly toxic, with a better safety in clinical combined administration and no adverse effects on bodies under the clinical dose and clinical medication cycle. However, long-term high-dose administration of Zuotai may have a certain effect on kidney.;

The objective of the present study is to research the herb of Swertia mussotii Franch and its different extracts by tristep infrared spectroscopy. The main constitute of Swertia mussotii Franch-gentiamarin, which is also the higher content constitute, was selected as the control components to analyze the infrared spectroscopy and second derivative infrared spectroscopy of different extracts of Swertia mussotii Franch, at the same time, the different concentration of ethanol extracts were also analyzed by two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS). The results indicated that the intensity of 1 611 and 1 075 cm(-1) of gentiamarin, which are its two main absorptions in the infrared spectra, has the positive correlation with the content change in different extracts. The infrared spectroscopy of extracts are similar if the polarity of extract solvents is close; with the decreases in solution polarity, the intensity of 2 853, 1 733, 1 464, 1 277 and 1 161 cm(-1) in infrared spectroscopy of different extracts is increased, the content of esters and the extraction percentage terpenoid compounds are also increased; the different concentration of ethanol extracts has obviously difference when they are analyzed by two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS). The positive correlation between the intensity of absorptions and the content of the gentiamarin indicates that the infrared spectroscopy can reflect the content change in constitute; the similar and the change trend of the different concentrations of ethanol extract infrared spectroscopy approve the scientificalness of decoction of traditional medicine; infrared spectroscopy that used in the research can be used as an accurate, rapid and effective method in the pharmacological activity tests of transitional herbal Swertia mussotii F. and it's different extracts, even in the research on the tibetan medicine.