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Children with high rates of disruptive behavior in elementary school are at risk for future psychosocial difficulties. Professionals who work in today's schools are in need of effective interventions to reduce rates of disruptive behaviors in schools in order to ensure optimal outcomes for students. We detail a pilot study of a brief mindfulness-based intervention, Soles of the Feet (SOF), for elementary school students. Three non-disabled students with high rates of off-task behavior during general education periods were selected and taught the SOF intervention. SOF took place over the course of five 20–30-min sessions in a public school setting. Using a multiple-baseline single-subject study design, results obtained via direct observation of student behavior during general education instructional time in the classroom suggest that SOF may be an effective intervention to reduce off-task behavior and increase academically engaged behavior for behaviorally challenging students. Questionnaires administered to these students and their teachers suggest that SOF is socially valid, feasible, and acceptable intervention for use in public schools. Conclusions extend the research of the effectiveness of SOF, and suggest that SOF is an effective short-term, resource non-intensive, and socially valid intervention for use with typically developing students with disruptive behavior in a public school setting.

We assessed the effectiveness of an adapted mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) program on educator stress and well-being. The study included 36 high school educators who participated in either an 8-week adapted MBSR program or a waitlist control group. Results suggested that educators who participated in MBSR reported significant gains in self-regulation, self-compassion, and mindfulness-related skills (observation, nonjudgment, and nonreacting). Significant improvements in multiple dimensions of sleep quality were found as well. These findings provide promising evidence of the effectiveness of MBSR as a strategy to promote educator’s personal and professional well-being. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

We assessed the effectiveness of an adapted mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) program on educator stress and well-being. The study included 36 high school educators who participated in either an 8-week adapted MBSR program or a waitlist control group. Results suggested that educators who participated in MBSR reported significant gains in self-regulation, self-compassion, and mindfulness-related skills (observation, nonjudgment, and nonreacting). Significant improvements in multiple dimensions of sleep quality were found as well. These findings provide promising evidence of the effectiveness of MBSR as a strategy to promote educator’s personal and professional well-being. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

As interest increases in mindfulness in education programs for youth, there is a need to develop reliable measures of the quality of program implementation. This paper describes the development and psychometric properties of a measure that can be used to assess and monitor quality of implementation of mindfulness programs/curricula in typical classroom or out-of-school settings. The Teaching Mindfulness in Education Observation Scale (TMEOS) is a 28-item instrument that integrates qualitative and quantitative aspects of mindfulness instruction. Items focus on procedural adherence as well as aspects of implementation that reflect embodiment during instructional delivery (e.g., alignment with the attitudinal foundations of mindfulness). Reliability and validity data were examined and indicated that the four major scoring domains and key features showed adequate inter-rater reliability and internal consistency. We conclude that observational assessment of multiple dimension of implementation quality, including adherence and process-oriented aspects of implementation such as embodiment, can be reliably used to assess implementation quality of mindfulness programs in education settings. However, adequate preparation and training are critical. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

Understanding teachers’ stress is of critical importance to address the challenges in today’s educational climate. Growing numbers of teachers are reporting high levels of occupational stress, and high levels of teacher turnover are having a negative impact on education quality. Cultivating Awareness and Resilience in Education (CARE for Teachers) is a mindfulness-based professional development program designed to promote teachers’ social and emotional competence and improve the quality of classroom interactions. The efficacy of the program was assessed using a cluster randomized trial design involving 36 urban elementary schools and 224 teachers. The CARE for Teachers program involved 30 hr of in-person training in addition to intersession phone coaching. At both pre- and postintervention, teachers completed self-report measures and assessments of their participating students. Teachers’ classrooms were observed and coded using the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS). Analyses showed that CARE for Teachers had statistically significant direct positive effects on adaptive emotion regulation, mindfulness, psychological distress, and time urgency. CARE for Teachers also had a statistically significant positive effect on the emotional support domain of the CLASS. The present findings indicate that CARE for Teachers is an effective professional development both for promoting teachers’ social and emotional competence and increasing the quality of their classroom interactions.

The heavy demands of teaching result in many teachers becoming alienated or burning out. Therefore, it is imperative to identify ways to support teachers’ internal capacities for managing stress and promoting well-being. Mindfulness is an approach with a growing foundation of empirical support in clinical as well as education settings. Cultivating Awareness and Resilience in Education (CARE) is a mindfulness-based professional development program developed to improve teachers’ awareness and well-being and to enhance classroom learning environments. Using an explanatory design, we analyzed data from four focus groups each with three to eight teachers who participated in CARE to explore the mechanisms underlying the intervention effects. Specifically, we examined if/how the CARE intervention affected teachers’ awareness and analyzed why CARE affected particular aspects of teachers’ physical and emotional health and why some aspects were not affected. Results suggest that participants developed greater self-awareness, including somatic awareness and the need to practice self-care. Participants also improved their ability to become less emotionally reactive. However, participants were less likely to explicitly articulate an improvement in their teaching efficacy. Implications for professional development are discussed.

During adolescence, young people are traversing exciting and also challenging stages in their development. Mindfulness, if taught in a developmentally appropriate way, has the potential to be an asset in adolescents' lives. Developmentally appropriate approaches of mindfulness intervention during adolescence need to consider adolescents' social contexts (for example, school setting, peer group, family), their cognitive and emotional stages in development, and age-specific strength and vulnerabilities. This chapter puts mindfulness education into a developmental perspective, and presents the Learning to BREATHE program as a school-based universal intervention for adolescents. The authors describe developmental dimensions and themes of the program, and discuss common challenges of program implementation in schools. A case example of bringing the Learning to BREATHE program into the school context is provided.

This article presents the results of a series of studies conducted to develop and validate a self-report measure of the Mindfulness in Teaching Scale. Results from study 1 suggested the presence of two distinct factors measuring teacher intrapersonal mindfulness and teacher interpersonal mindfulness. Both constructs demonstrated strong positive loadings, weak cross-loadings, and adequate internal consistency. In study 2, the validity of these two constructs was confirmed though confirmatory factor analysis. In study 3, we examined the 6-month test–retest reliability, concurrent validity, and predictive validity of scales in a separate sample of 392 teachers. Test–retest reliabilities for both scales were medium–large range. Absolute values of concurrent correlations with measures of teacher burnout and instructional efficacy were in the small-medium range for the teacher interpersonal mindfulness scale whereas teacher intrapersonal mindfulness was unrelated to burnout or instructional efficacy measures. Over a 6-month period, interpersonal mindfulness predicted scores on teacher burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization) and instructional efficacy in working with students (social-emotional and behavior management) whereas intrapersonal mindfulness failed to predict burnout our efficacy measures over this same time period. Results suggest that the Mindfulness in Teaching scale is a promising measure of mindfulness in teachers with good psychometric properties, with the interpersonal subscale predictive of teacher burnout and instructional efficacy over time.