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Descilo T, Vedamurtachar A, Gerbarg PL, Nagaraja D, Gangadhar BN, Damodaran B, Adelson B, Braslow LH, Marcus S, Brown RP. Effects of a yoga breath intervention alone and in combination with an exposure therapy for PTSD and depression in survivors of the 2004 South-East Asia tsunami. Objective: This study evaluated the effect of a yoga breath program alone and followed by a trauma reduction exposure technique on post-traumatic stress disorder and depression in survivors of the 2004 Asian tsunami. Method: In this non-randomized study, 183 tsunami survivors who scored 50 or above on the Post-traumatic Checklist-17 (PCL-17) were assigned by camps to one of three groups: yoga breath intervention, yoga breath intervention followed by 3-8 h of trauma reduction exposure technique or 6-week wait list. Measures for post-traumatic stress disorder (PCL-17) and depression (BDI-21) were performed at baseline and at 6, 12 and 24 weeks. Data were analyzed using anova and mixed effects regression. Results: The effect of treatment vs. control was significant at 6 weeks (F2,178 = 279.616, P < 0.001): mean PCL-17 declined by 42.5 ± 10.0 SD with yoga breath, 39.2 ± 17.2 with Yoga breath + exposure and 4.6 ± 13.2 in the control. Conclusion: Yoga breath-based interventions may help relieve psychological distress following mass disasters. © 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Context: Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders. Stimulant medication is frequently used in management, with significant adverse effects. There is a growing interest in complementary treatments like yoga. Aims: To study the effects of yoga as a complementary therapy in children with moderate to severe ADHD. Settings and Design: The study was performed on children (consent was taken from parents) admitted in a child psychiatry unit using an open-label exploratory study. Materials and Methods: Children between 5 and 16 years of age diagnosed with ADHD and co-operative for yoga were included. Subjects with other serious psychiatric and medical illnesses were excluded. The participants were given yoga training daily during their in-patient stay. They were rated on Conners' abbreviated rating scale - (CARS), ADHD-rating scale-IV (ADHD - RS IV) and clinical global impression (CGI)-Severity, at the beginning of study, at discharge and subsequently at the end of 1st, 2nd and 3rd month by a research associate not involved in yoga instruction. Paired t-test was employed to compare the means of scores between baseline and follow-ups. Results: A total of 9 children (8 males, 1 female) were recruited into the study. All, but one were on medications. An average of 8 yoga training sessions was given to subjects. They were able to learn yoga reasonably well. There was a significant improvement in the ADHD symptoms as assessed on CARS (P-0.014), ADHD-RS IV (P=0.021) and CGI-S scales (P=0.004) at the time of discharge. Conclusions: Yoga training for therapy is feasible and can be used as an add-on therapy for ADHD.
India and China face the same challenge of having too few trained psychiatric personnel to manage effectively the substantial burden of mental illness within their population. At the same time, both countries have many practitioners of traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine who are a potential resource for delivery of mental health care. In our paper, part of The Lancet and Lancet Psychiatry's Series about the China-India Mental Health Alliance, we describe and compare types of traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine in India and China. Further, we provide a systematic overview of evidence assessing the effectiveness of these alternative approaches for mental illness and discuss challenges in research. We suggest how practitioners of traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine and mental health professionals might forge collaborative relationships to provide more accessible, affordable, and acceptable mental health care in India and China. A substantial proportion of individuals with mental illness use traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine, either exclusively or with biomedicine, for reasons ranging from faith and cultural congruence to accessibility, cost, and belief that these approaches are safe. Systematic reviews of the effectiveness of traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine find several approaches to be promising for treatment of mental illness, but most clinical trials included in these systematic reviews have methodological limitations. Contemporary methods to establish efficacy and safety-typically through randomised controlled trials-need to be complemented by other means. The community of practice built on collaborative relationships between practitioners of traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine and providers of mental health care holds promise in bridging the treatment gap in mental health care in India and China.
Yoga is a traditional life-style practice used for spiritual reasons. However, the physical components like the asanas and pranayaamas have demonstrated physiological and therapeutic effects. There is evidence for Yoga as being a potent antidepressant that matches with drugs. In depressive disorder, yoga 'corrects' an underlying cognitive physiology. In schizophrenia patients, yoga has benefits as an add-on intervention in pharmacologically stabilized subjects. The effects are particularly notable on negative symptoms. Yoga also helps to correct social cognition. Yoga can be introduced early in the treatment of psychosis with some benefits. Elevation of oxytocin may be a mechanism of yoga effects in schizophrenia. Certain components of yoga have demonstrated neurobiological effects similar to those of vagal stimulation, indicating this (indirect or autogenous vagal stimulation) as a possible mechanism of its action. It is time, psychiatrists exploited the benefits if yoga for a comprehensive care in their patients.