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To explore the medication regularity of Tibetan medicine in the treatment of spleen and stomach diseases, analyze the potential drug targets and interactions of the prescriptions, and reveal the mechanism of Tibetan medicine in the treatment of spleen and stomach diseases. The prescriptions in Tibetan medicine for treatment of spleen and stomach diseases were collected, and Traditional Chinese Medicine Inheritance Support System (TCMISS) was used to analyze the association rules between the herbs and discover the core herbs and new prescriptions. The integrated pharmacology platform V1.0 software was used to construct "herb-compound-target" network and investigate the interactions between various herbs and related pathways of Tibetan medicine Wuwei Shiliu powder in the treatment of spleen and stomach diseases. Among the 216 prescriptions of Tibetan medicine in the treatment of spleen and stomach diseases, pomegranate seed was used at a highest frequency (118 times), followed by white cardamom (107 times) and comatose (107 times). 12 new prescriptions were evolved by using the association rules (support>=34%, confidence>=0.85). 5 242 related drug targets and 20 related pathways were obtained from classic formula Wuwei Shiliu Powder (FDR<0.01). It was proposed that Tibetan medicine treatment for spleen and stomach diseases was mainly based on proliferation of "stomach fire" and the main drugs were for regulating Qi-flowing for strengthening spleen. The mechanism may be associated with regulation of digestive juice secretion, proton pump, mitochondria, regulation of intestinal digestion and immunity, the body's immunity to microorganisms function and other multiple targets and pathways to achieve the joint intervention.
Fecal Tibetan medicines have a long history of application in China, with a good clinical efficacy. In order to promote the development and modernization of these medicines, we consulted ancient and modern Tibetan medicine literatures to collect and summarize the names, original species, natures, flavor, functions and processing methods of fecal Tibetan medicines. A total of 35 fecal Tibetan medicines were collected, such as Jiufen, Heibingpian, Langfen, Mafen, Goufen, Gezifen. The most commonly used medicines were Jiufen and Heibingpian. Both were mainly used for the treatment of indigestion, food abdominal distension, gastric ulcer, and other gastrointestinal diseases. At present, there are only a few studies on the active ingredients, pharmacodynamics and mechanism of action of these medicines. Therefore, further study shall be conducted. The regulation of gut microbiota may be a new way to evaluate the effectiveness of fecal Tibetan medicines and their mechanism of action.