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<p>According to the encyclopaedic Tibetan dictionary 'Bod rgya tshig mdzod chen mo', 'rdzogs chen' is a religious term of the Rnyingma school, i.e., of the old, or authentic Buddhism of Tibet. A leading Western writer on the subject, Herbert Guenther says rdzogs chen "is the name given to that spiritual tradition in Buddhism that emphasizes a holistic approach and rejects all partial perspectives as but local and temporal fluctuations within the atemporally abiding, non-localizable mystery that is Being as such." The present book is an English translation of 'rdor sems thugs kyi sgrub pa'i khrid yig rab gsal snang ba'. This is an explanantion of the complete rdzogs chen meditation practice: being Lo chen Dharma - sri's guide through a Gter bdag gling pa treasure text, a text first taught by the second Buddha Padma-sambhava to his inner circle of thirty extraordinary women with wisdom. The text is explained in Tibetan by Khamtul Rinpoche and presented in English by Gareth Sparham. The text is an integrated presentation of the entire Buddhist religious practice. It is complete in encompassing the vast diversity of preliminary and fundamental Buddhist practice and complete, as well in including in its presentation of Buddhism the esoteric practices that convey one to the inexpressible transcendental profoundity, the clear and blissful sphere of the ultimate. The practices taught come together in the person's mind, as ti were, to lead to breakthrough or a jump into transcendental experience.. That is to say, to transcend its own activity and reach into its own primordial nature.</p>
In theory, mindfulness has a role to play in resolving intercultural conflicts. This suggestion rests upon the relatively untested presumption that mindfulness operates similarly across cultures. In a test of this presumption, university students from two countries that are often in conflict at the governmental level, Iran (N=723) and the United States (N=900), responded to the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (Brown and Ryan Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 84(4):822-848, 2003), along with an array of other psychological measures. This Mindfulness Scale displayed structural complexities in both societies, but a measurement invariant subscale was nevertheless identified. Similar cross-cultural evidence of concurrent validity was obtained in relationships with wide-ranging measures of adjustment. Nonsignificant linkages with Public Self-Consciousness and Self-Monitoring demonstrated discriminant validity in both societies. These data identified mindfulness as a cross-culturally similar psychological process that could plausibly have a role in resolving intercultural conflicts.