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In this article the classics textual research to the origin of "Zha-xun" was carried out, the ethnobotanical research methods, the origin of visits, key informant interviews, sample collection and textual research were applied in the research. The results showed that the hypothesis of Zha-xun"s origin mainly included "source of mine", "source of feces", "source of monkey menstrual blood" in China. There were "source of fossil", "source of the plant secretion" abroad. The authors had interviewed the villagers at origin, herbalists, Tibetan doctors, herb dealers, foreign scholars for a total of 18 people, and collecting 45 batches medicinal materials. According to ancient Tibetan classics textual and Tibetan medicine doctors' views, medicinal materials were divided into the genuine and the substitutes. The genuine was identified as ancient so-called "iron" type "Zha-xun", and the substitute was fecal pellet bonding briquette. According to the field survey and literature research, "source of fossil" more in line with substance of Zha-xun was derived from the rock. As the results, the author believed that Zha-xun was the mixture of organic fossils from the rock seepage with flying squirrel, pika feces. So it is needed to be set up Zha-xun classification standard to evaluate the quality of medicinal materials. Meanwhile, it was necessary to further clarify fecal pellet substitute rationality. Above all, this article clarified the status of the use of Tibetan medicine-"Zha-xun", and laid the foundation of species systematics and quality standards research of "Zha-xun".

OBJECTIVE: To establish the HPLC fingerprint for Halenia elliptica herbs, a traditional Tibetan medicine, in order to study constituents contained in H. elliptica from different habitats and compare their differences.METHOD: HPLC analysis was made on a Welchrom-C18 (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm) with water and acetonitrile as mobile phase. The wavelength was detected as 265 nm, the flow rate was 1.0 mL x min(-1), and the column temperature was 40 degrees C. The software for chromatographic fingerprint was applied to analyze the similarity. And principal component analysis was conducted. RESULT: Twelve common chromatographic peaks were identified by fingerprint, showing a low similarity in constituent and variety. The significant difference in the proportion between xanthones and aglycones in each batch of herbs indicated no notable correlation between constituent characteristics and geographic locations of habitats. CONCLUSION: The method is so simple, exclusive, stable and highly repeatable that it can provide reference for identification and quality assessment of H. elliptica herbs.

OBJECTIVE: To study the material composition of Tibetan medicine "Brag-zhun", and to provide the basis for interpretation of its source and reference for the establishment of quality standards.METHODS: Pharmacognosy routine method was used in macroscopic and microscopic identifications, inductively coupled plasma spectrometry was carried out to determine 26 kinds of mineral elements,and X-ray diffraction analysis was used for the crystalline phase detection of Brag-zhun. The content of calcium,organic matter, humic acid and fulvic acid was determined according to GB/T 14610-2008, "technical specification for soil analysis" , GB/T 11957-2001 and capacity titration, respectively. Moisture, ash content, acid insoluble ash content and water soluble extract were determined with reference to the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2010 edition). RESULTS: Animal feces were commonly found in Brag-zhun, the main crystal phase was SiO2, 26 kinds of mineral elements content in total was about 3%, 13 batches of medicinal materials in organic matter content was 29.03%-71.79%. Humic acid content was 28.37%-58.51%; fulvic acid content was 19.69%-41.43%; moisture was 5.2% -11.7%; total ash content was 17.82%-64.39%; acid insoluble ash content was 2.10%-39.09%; and water soluble extract was 28.39%-57.40%. CONCLUSION: The traditional record of Brag-zhun from molten juice is lack of scientific basis. The mineral elements in Brag-zhun exist in amorphous. Brag-zhun contains a lot of organic matter including humic acid and fulvic acid, and inorganic matter mainly comes from sediment. The organic matter in rock has gone through a long geological evolution.

Tibetan medicine "Dida" isoccasionally misused due to its complex origins, which ultimately affects its clinical efficacy. The accurate name, origin, property, and efficacy of "Dida"are highly important for its further research and development. In the present study, by viewing the classic Tibetan medicine and modern literature, and combining the clinical practice of Tibetan medicine, the origins, properties and the clinic effects of "Dida" were defined. "Dida" originated from multiple plant species of Swertia, Gentianopsis, Halenia, Lomatogonium, Comastoma(Gentianaceae), Hedyotis (Saxifragaceae) and Erysimum (Cruciferae). The medicinal properties of "Dida" is mainly bitter and cold. It has been commonly used to treat febrile diseases and hepatic and gall diseases. This study suggested that the relevant herbalogical study, species identification and pharmacological effects of "Dida" should be taken based on the Tibetan medicine theories and clinical practice. Thus the medicine can be better used and ensure its safety and quality simultaneously.

Zha-xun is widely used in Tibetan medicine and is also an international traditional medicine. This article would summarize the use status and research progress of Zha-xun by various ethnic groups all over the world, and the results show that it has various synonyms but most of them imply its most characteristic feature-outflow from the rock; Zha-xun resources are distributed in various places of the world, and its bearing spots are closely related to the geological structure; there are sharp arguments on the origins of Zha-xun, mainly including the minerals origin, biological fossils origin, biological origin, etc. Zha-xun has multiple functions and is mainly used to treat stomach disease, liver disease and rheumatoid arthritis in China, and premature ejaculation, impotence, vaginitis embolism in foreign countries. "Iron" Zha-xun is used into medicines both at home and abroad. According to ancient materia medica texts, it was mainly classified into five types, including gold Zha-xun, silver Zha-xun, copper Zha-xun, iron Zha-xun and lead Zha-xun mainly based on the predominance of color rather than the minerals contained. It is commonly believed by the domestic and foreign scholars that humic acid is the main medicinal part of Zha-xun, and their studies have found that it has a variety of pharmacological activities such as anti-ulcer, anti-inflammatory, liver protection, analgesia, immune regulation, increasing sexual desire and fertility, antioxidation, antibacterial, antidiabetic, antiepileptic, antipsychotic, etc. This paper provides a scientific basis for the rational utilization of Zha-xun resources.

Integrating textual criticism literatures with field survey, the name, classification and botanical originals of breeds of Tibetan medicine "Dida" were discussed in this paper. The results showed that it's very intricate and confusion in the names, breeds and botanical originals of "Dida", and those were the key restricting factors resulting in shortfall and difficult formulation in quality standard of "Dida". The similar situations are existing universally in ethnodrugs, and reflecting the necessity and urgency to collate ethnodrug breeds. On the other hand, Because of the morphologic description on the botanical origins of drug was often simple in the ancient literatures, and in most cases, the botanical origins of the drug were difficult to identify accurately on the basis of the literatures. So, in the collating the breeds, it's necessary to follow the principle of "according to the ancient literatures but no rigidly", and to pay attention to the historical vicissitude of the drug breeds and origins, and the survey of present resources and clinical using, draw actively on outcome of chemical and biological active researches. That inherited the characteristics and advantages of ethnodrugs, and promoted them them modernization.

Objective: To clarity the original plants and the main application varieties of White Flos Gentianae.; Method: Herbal textual research, wild specimen collection, investigation and collection of the samples from Tibetan hospital, Tibetan pharmaceutical factory and medical material market were carried out simultaneously to identify the original plants of White Flos Gentianae.; Result: The results of varieties textual research and specimen identification showed that Gentiana szechenyii, G. purdomii and G. algida were in accord with the record of Tibetan herbal textual The three species above were the original plants of White Flos Gentianae. The identification of 20 batches samples showed that G. szechenyii was the main application variety. The other varieties were only used in Tibetan hospitals. All the samples above were flowering branches.; Conclusion: It was necessary to strengthen the research on variety systematization of White Flos Gentianae make a further discussion on the taxonomy position of G. purdomii, G. algida and the white flos population. Its was also nessary to establish and improve the quality standard of different variety based on the principle of "one species, one name". The quality specification of White Flos Gentianae should be established and improved to standard clinical utilization and produce feeding. More study of resources investigation and cultivation of G. szechenyii should be carried on to meet the demand of produce and clinic.;

"Bangjian" were traditional Tibetan medicine-flowers from Gentianaceae, which were widely used and had a long medicinal history for the function of detoxifying, curing heat symptoms and treating the laryngitis. The Tibetan compound preparation endowed SFDA approval number always used Bangjian aas the main raw materials for relieving cough, asthma and treating respiratory diseases such as acute and chronic bronchitis. Its commodity medicinal materials were also sold in Qinghai, Sichuan, Tibet and other local medicinal materials market and local specialty marke. However, when recorded by literatures of Tibetan medicine, Bangjian were often classified into white, blue and black or white, blue and variegated according to color of flowers, leading to disordered varieties. In this paper, different Bangjian including their original plants and the main application varieties were studied and authenticated by textual research, wild specimen collection, investigation and collection of samples from Tibetan hospitals´╝îTibetan pharmaceutical factories and medical material markets. Results showed that Bangjian-including blue, black and variegated flowers were originated from 14 species and 3 varietas according to literatures, and the main application varieties mainly come from Ser. Ornatae of Sect. Monopodiae, such as Gentiana veitchiorum for the most, G. sino-ornata as well as G. lawrencei var. farreri. Suggestion about establishing the quality standard of Bangjian was gived, which provided reference in reasonable use and scientific research for Bangjian, and also had practical value for its clinical use and development.