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Research Findings: Head Start teachers completed brief rating scales measuring the social-emotional competence and approaches to learning of preschool children (total N = 164; 14% Hispanic American, 30% African American, 56% Caucasian; 56% girls). Head Start lead and assistant teacher ratings on both scales demonstrated strong internal consistency and moderate interrater reliability. When examined longitudinally, preschool teacher-rated approaches to learning made unique contributions to the prediction of kindergarten and 1st-grade academic outcomes, need for supplemental services, and grade retention, even after we accounted for preschool academic skills. In contrast, preschool teacher-rated social-emotional competence made unique contributions to the prediction of reduced behavior problems and peer difficulties in kindergarten and 1st grade. Practice or Policy: The findings demonstrate that preschool teachers are able to provide distinct and reliable ratings of child social-emotional competence and approaches to learning using brief rating scales, with validity for predicting elementary school adjustment.