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Over the past century, the total material wealth of humanity has been enhanced. However, in the twenty-first century, we face scarcity in critical resources, the degradation of ecosystem services, and the erosion of the planet’s capability to absorb our wastes. Equity issues remain stubbornly difficult to solve. This situation is novel in its speed, its global scale and its threat to the resilience of the Earth System. The advent of the Anthropence, the time interval in which human activities now rival global geophysical processes, suggests that we need to fundamentally alter our relationship with the planet we inhabit. Many approaches could be adopted, ranging from geo-engineering solutions that purposefully manipulate parts of the Earth System to becoming active stewards of our own life support system. The Anthropocene is a reminder that the Holocene, during which complex human societies have developed, has been a stable, accommodating environment and is the only state of the Earth System that we know for sure can support contemporary society. The need to achieve effective planetary stewardship is urgent. As we go further into the Anthropocene, we risk driving the Earth System onto a trajectory toward more hostile states from which we cannot easily return.

OBJECTIVE: To compare the ettect and side-ettect of fluoxetine and combination of fluoxetine and Chinese or Tibetan medicine in treating senile depression in plateau district. Methods Ninety patients with diagnosis of senile depression conformed to CCMD-3 standard, in plateau district of 2260 - 3200 m altitude were randomly divided into three groups and treated with fluoxetine (group A), fluoxetine plus Sanpu Xinnao Xin granule (group B) and fluoxetine plus Xiaoyao pill (group C), respectively, 30 cases in each group. Therapeutic effects were evaluated with Hamilton' s depressive scale (HAMD) and treatment emergent symptom scale (TESS) after 6 weeks treatment.RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the therapeutic effects between the three groups. The adverse reaction in Group B and C was less than that in Group A (P<0.01). Conclusion Sanpu Xinnao Xin granule and Xiaoyao pill can raise the tolerance of patients with senile depression in plateau area against the adverse reaction of fluoxetine.

A simple and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method with fluorescence detection and mass spectrometric identification has been developed for analysis of 30 long-chain and short-chain free fatty acids (FFAs). The fatty acids were derivatized to their esters with 1-[2-(<i>p</i>-toluenesulfonate)ethyl]-2-phenylimidazole-[4,5-<i>f</i>]-9,10-phenanthrene (TSPP) in <i>N</i>,<i>N</i>-dimethylformamide (DMF) at 90 °C with anhydrous K<sub>2</sub>CO<sub>3</sub> as catalyst. A mixture of C<sub>1</sub>-C<sub>30</sub> fatty acids was completely separated within 60 min by gradient elution on a reversed-phase C<sub>8</sub> column. Qualitative identification of the acids was performed by atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (APCI-MS) in positive-ion mode. The fluorescence excitation and emission wavelengths were 260 and 380 nm, respectively. Quantitative determination of the 30 acids in two Tibetan medicines <i>Gentiana straminea</i> and <i>G. dahurica</i> was performed. The results indicated that the medicines contained many FFAs. Linear correlation coefficients for the FFA derivatives were >0.9991. Relative standard deviations (RSDs, <i>n</i> = 6) for the fatty acid derivatives were <3%. Detection limits (at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3:1) were 3.1-38 fmol. When the fatty acid derivatives were determined in the two real samples results were satisfactory and the sensitivity and reproducibility of the method were good.

Research using Western samples shows that talking about unpleasant emotions—distress disclosure—is associated with fewer psychological symptoms and higher well-being. These benefits of distress disclosure may or may not be observed in East Asia where emotional control is valued. Instead, mindfulness may be more relevant to emotion regulation in East Asia (e.g., Taiwan). In the present study, cultural context (Taiwanese nationals vs. European Americans) and mindfulness were examined as moderators of the relation between distress disclosure and both depression symptoms and life satisfaction. A sample of 256 Taiwanese college students and a sample of 209 European American college students completed self-report measures in their native language. Moderated multiple regression analyses revealed significant interaction effects of mindfulness and distress disclosure on both depression symptoms and life satisfaction for Taiwanese participants but not for European Americans. Specifically, distress disclosure was negatively associated with depression symptoms and positively associated with life satisfaction for Taiwanese low in mindfulness but not for Taiwanese high in mindfulness. For European Americans, distress disclosure was not associated with depression symptoms but was associated with higher life satisfaction, regardless of one’s level of mindfulness. These findings suggest that the potential benefits of disclosing distress are a function of one’s cultural context as well as, for those from Taiwan, one’s mindfulness.

Zuotai is a drug containing mercury considered to be the king of Tibetan medicine. The biosafety of Zuotai led people's attention and so far little is known about the toxicity of Zuotai to mast cells. RBL-2H3 cells which used as an alternative model of mast cells were treated with Zuotai, β-HgS and positive drug Compound 48/80 respectively. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to determine the toxicity of drugs to RBL-2H3 cells. The degranulation of RBL-2H3 cells was studied from β-hexosaminidase, histamine, interleukin (IL)-4 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). The result showed that Zuotai can affect the cytotoxicity and degranulation of RBL-2H3 cells and the results can provide reference for the toxicity evaluations of Tibetan medicine Zuotai.

Zuotai is a drug containing mercury considered to be the king of Tibetan medicine. The biosafety of Zuotai led people's attention and so far little is known about the toxicity of Zuotai to mast cells. RBL-2H3 cells which used as an alternative model of mast cells were treated with Zuotai, β-HgS and positive drug Compound 48/80 respectively. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to determine the toxicity of drugs to RBL-2H3 cells. The degranulation of RBL-2H3 cells was studied from β-hexosaminidase, histamine, interleukin (IL)-4 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). The result showed that Zuotai can affect the cytotoxicity and degranulation of RBL-2H3 cells and the results can provide reference for the toxicity evaluations of Tibetan medicine Zuotai.

Objectives: The main purpose of this study was to enhance the intestinal absorption activity and hepatoprotective effect of herpetrione by drug nanosuspensions.<br>Methods: Herpetrione nanosuspensions (HNS) were prepared using pH-dependent dissolving-precipitating/homogenization process and then systematically characterized. The intestinal absorption activity of HNS were studied using the recirculating perfusion technique in comparison with herpetrione coarse suspensions (HCS) and pure herpetrione using the recirculating perfusion technique. The protective effect of HNS against acute liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl₄) in mice was also investigated and compared with that of HCS.<br>Key findings: The mean particle size of HNS was 269 ± 7 nm with a polydispersity index of 0.187 ± 0.021. The result of X-ray powder diffraction indicated that herpetrione was in amorphous state in both coarse powder and nanosuspensions. The intestinal absorption activity of HNS were superior to the HCS and pure herpetrione. As evidenced by the lowering of serum aminotransferase levels and the improvement of the degree of liver lesion, pretreatment with HNS markedly enhanced the hepatoprotective effect of herpetrione against acute liver injury induced by CCl₄ in mice.<br>Conclusion: HNS prepared using pH-dependent dissolving-precipitating/homogenization technique are able to significantly enhance the intestinal absorption activity and the hepatoprotective effect of herpetrione due to the particle size reduction.

Lycium ruthenicum Murr. (LRM, Solanaceae), also called "black wolfberry" in China, is extremely tolerant drought. Although black wolfberry has seeds that are rich in oil, being considered as a potential alternative for edible oil production, little information has been found regarding its characterization. The present study evaluated the fatty acid profile of the seed oil and its phytosterol contents. Moreover, its antioxidant potential and its inhibition activities on pancreatic lipase, and cholesterol esterase (CEase) were also determined. The key fatty acids of studied oil were linoleic (74.58%), oleic (11.82%), γ-linolenic (6.60%), palmitic (4.88%), and stearic (1.40%) acids, which together comprised 99.28% of the total fatty acids. Phytosterols including 24-methylenecholesterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, dihydrolanosterol, 24-methyldesmosterol, β-sitosterol, Δ5 -avenasterol, cycloartenol, and Δ7- avenasterol were identified for the 1st time. The inhibition values (IC50 ) for the DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging capacities of the oil were 7.86 and 15.49 mg/mL, respectively. Additionally, LRM seed oil was also demonstrated to possess strong pancreatic lipase, and CEase inhibition activities with IC50 values of 12.38 and 2.63 mg/mL, respectively. The mechanism study indicated that the inhibitory manner of the oil on CEase belonged to uncompetitive inhibition of reversible inhibition. The results derived from above studies suggest that LRM seed oil could be a potential source of high value phytochemicals for developing novel functional food.

The characteristic fingerprint of conventional dairy Nanhanshuishi was established by X-ray diffraction (XRD), based on similarity of caculation on public peaks by MATLAB software, and the feasibility of new dairy technology of microwave method was explored between XRD and the dissolution rate in artificial simulation gastric juices. The result showed that similarity of shared peak in XRD of conventional dairy Nanhanshuishi was > 95%, This XRD characteristic fingerprint of conventional dairy Nanhanshuishi had strong specificity, could be used to provide a reference for identification and quality evaluation. This study also showed that the similarity of microware dairy products and conventional dairy products was good, and the sample of microwave 15 min was the best, and new dairy method by the microwave could replace the traditional method.

AIM: Fructus phyllanthi tannin fraction (PTF) from the traditional Tibetan medicine Fructus phyllanthi has been found to inhibit lung and liver carcinoma in mice. In this study we investigated the anticancer mechanisms of PTF in human lung squamous carcinoma cells in vitro.METHODS: Human lung squamous carcinoma cell line (NCI-H1703), human large-cell lung cancer cell line (NCI-H460), human lung adenocarcinoma cell line (A549) and human fibrosarcoma cell line (HT1080) were tested. Cell viability was detected with MTT assay. Cell migration and invasion were assessed using a wound healing assay and a transwell chemotaxis chambers assay, respectively. Cell apoptosis was analyzed with flow cytometric analysis. The levels of apoptosis-related and metastasis-related proteins were detected by Western blot and immunofluorescence. RESULTS: PTF dose-dependently inhibited the viability of the 3 human lung cancer cells. The IC50 values of PTF in inhibition of NCI-H1703, NCI-H460, and A549 cells were 33, 203, and 94 mg/L, respectively. PTF (15, 30, and 60 mg/L) dose-dependently induced apoptosis of NCI-H1703 cells. Treatment of NCI-H1703 and HT1080 cells with PTF significantly inhibited cell migration, and reduced the number of invasive cells through Matrigel. Furthermore, PTF dose-dependently down-regulated the expression of phosphor-ERK1/2, MMP-2 and MMP-9, up-regulated the expression of phosphor-JNK, but had no significant effect on the expression of ERK1/2 or JNK. CONCLUSION: PTF induces cell apoptosis and inhibits the migration and invasion of NCI-H1703 cells by decreasing MPPs expression through regulation of the MAPK pathway.

AIM: Fructus phyllanthi tannin fraction (PTF) from the traditional Tibetan medicine Fructus phyllanthi has been found to inhibit lung and liver carcinoma in mice. In this study we investigated the anticancer mechanisms of PTF in human lung squamous carcinoma cells in vitro. METHODS: Human lung squamous carcinoma cell line (NCI-H1703), human large-cell lung cancer cell line (NCI-H460), human lung adenocarcinoma cell line (A549) and human fibrosarcoma cell line (HT1080) were tested. Cell viability was detected with MTT assay. Cell migration and invasion were assessed using a wound healing assay and a transwell chemotaxis chambers assay, respectively. Cell apoptosis was analyzed with flow cytometric analysis. The levels of apoptosis-related and metastasis-related proteins were detected by Western blot and immunofluorescence. RESULTS: PTF dose-dependently inhibited the viability of the 3 human lung cancer cells. The IC50 values of PTF in inhibition of NCI-H1703, NCI-H460, and A549 cells were 33, 203, and 94 mg/L, respectively. PTF (15, 30, and 60 mg/L) dose-dependently induced apoptosis of NCI-H1703 cells. Treatment of NCI-H1703 and HT1080 cells with PTF significantly inhibited cell migration, and reduced the number of invasive cells through Matrigel. Furthermore, PTF dose-dependently down-regulated the expression of phosphor-ERK1/2, MMP-2 and MMP-9, up-regulated the expression of phosphor-JNK, but had no significant effect on the expression of ERK1/2 or JNK. CONCLUSION: PTF induces cell apoptosis and inhibits the migration and invasion of NCI-H1703 cells by decreasing MPPs expression through regulation of the MAPK pathway.

Ethnopharmacological relevance: <b>Herpetospermum caudigerum</b> (HCD) is traditionally used for the treatment of liver diseases, cholic diseases, and dyspepsia as a well-known Tibetan medicine in China. The present study was designed to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of HCD and ascertain its active ingredients and possible mechanism.<br>Materials and methods: Mice were orally administrated with different parts (seeds, testa and kernel) and fractions of HCD. The hepatoprotective activities of different parts (seeds, testa and kernel) and three fractions (petroleum ether fraction, ethyl acetate fraction and aqueous fraction) with different polarities of HCD and herpetrione (HPE) isolated from HCD were determined using a mouse model of CCl4-induced liver injury based on the analysis of serum ALT and AST activities and the changes of antioxidant parameters like malondialdehyde (MDA) content, glutathione (GSH) level, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities in the liver. Moreover, the chemical analysis of different parts and fractions of HCD was later analyzed by HPLC.<br>Results: Our results showed that the ethyl acetate fraction and HPE significantly alleviated liver injury as indicated by the decreased levels of serum ALT and AST and reduce the pathological tissue damage induced by CCl4. Moreover, they decreased the MDA content and increased the levels of SOD, GSH and GSH-Px. Chemical analysis indicated that the ethyl acetate fraction were rich in HPE.<br>Conclusions: The lignans extract of <b>Herpetospermum caudigerum</b> is effective for the prevention of CCl4-induced hepatic damage in mice and HPE may be partially responsible for the pharmacological effect of hepatoprotection. The hepatoprotective effect may be related to its free radical scavenging effect, inhibiting lipid peroxidation and increasing antioxidant activity.<br><br>Display Omitted

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Herpetospermum caudigerum (HCD) is traditionally used for the treatment of liver diseases, cholic diseases, and dyspepsia as a well-known Tibetan medicine in China. The present study was designed to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of HCD and ascertain its active ingredients and possible mechanism.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mice were orally administrated with different parts (seeds, testa and kernel) and fractions of HCD. The hepatoprotective activities of different parts (seeds, testa and kernel) and three fractions (petroleum ether fraction, ethyl acetate fraction and aqueous fraction) with different polarities of HCD and herpetrione (HPE) isolated from HCD were determined using a mouse model of CCl4-induced liver injury based on the analysis of serum ALT and AST activities and the changes of antioxidant parameters like malondialdehyde (MDA) content, glutathione (GSH) level, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities in the liver. Moreover, the chemical analysis of different parts and fractions of HCD was later analyzed by HPLC. RESULTS: Our results showed that the ethyl acetate fraction and HPE significantly alleviated liver injury as indicated by the decreased levels of serum ALT and AST and reduce the pathological tissue damage induced by CCl4. Moreover, they decreased the MDA content and increased the levels of SOD, GSH and GSH-Px. Chemical analysis indicated that the ethyl acetate fraction were rich in HPE. CONCLUSIONS: The lignans extract of Herpetospermum caudigerum is effective for the prevention of CCl4-induced hepatic damage in mice and HPE may be partially responsible for the pharmacological effect of hepatoprotection. The hepatoprotective effect may be related to its free radical scavenging effect, inhibiting lipid peroxidation and increasing antioxidant activity.

The effect of breathing therapy was evaluated in patients with hyperventilation syndrome (HVS). The diagnosis of HVS was based on the presence of several suggestive complaints occurring in the context of stress, and reproduced by voluntary hyperventilation. Organic diseases as a cause of the symptoms were excluded. Most of these patients met the criteria for an anxiety disorder. The therapy was conducted in the following sequence: (1) brief, voluntary hyperventilation to reproduce the complaints in daily life; (2) reattribution of the cause of the symptoms to hyperventilation; (3) explaining the rationale of therapy--reduction of hyperventilation by acquiring an abdominal breathing pattern, with slowing down of expiration; and (4) breathing retraining for 2 to 3 months by a physiotherapist. After breathing therapy, the sum scores of the Nijmegen Questionnaire were markedly reduced. Improvements were registered in 10 of the 16 complaints of the questionnaire. The level of anxiety evaluated by means of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) decreased slightly. The breathing pattern was modified significantly after breathing retraining. Mean values of inspiration and expiration time and tidal volume increased, but end-tidal co2 concentration (FETCO2) was not significantly modified except in the group of younger women (-<28 years). A canonical correlation analysis relating the changes of the various complaints to the modifications of breathing variables showed that the improvement of the complaints was correlated mainly with the slowing down of breathing frequency. The favorable influence of breathing retraining on complaints thus appeared to be a consequence of its influence primarily on breathing frequency, rather than on FETCO2. Copyright© 1996 Elsevier Science Inc.

Background:The current paper includes a systematic search of the literature, a detailed presentation of the results, and a grading of treatment options in terms of efficacy and tolerability/safety. Material and Methods: The PRISMA method was used in the literature search with the combination of the words ‘bipolar,’ ‘manic,’ ‘mania,’ ‘manic depression,’ and ‘manic depressive’ with ‘randomized,’ and ‘algorithms’ with ‘mania,’ ‘manic,’ ‘bipolar,’ ‘manic-depressive,’ or ‘manic depression.’ Relevant web pages and review articles were also reviewed. Results: The current report is based on the analysis of 57 guideline papers and 531 published papers related to RCTs, reviews, posthoc, or meta-analysis papers to March 25, 2016. The specific treatment options for acute mania, mixed episodes, acute bipolar depression, maintenance phase, psychotic and mixed features, anxiety, and rapid cycling were evaluated with regards to efficacy. Existing treatment guidelines were also reviewed. Finally, Tables reflecting efficacy and recommendation levels were created that led to the development of a precise algorithm that still has to prove its feasibility in everyday clinical practice. Conclusions: A systematic literature search was conducted on the pharmacological treatment of bipolar disorder to identify all relevant random controlled trials pertaining to all aspects of bipolar disorder and graded the data according to a predetermined method to develop a precise treatment algorithm for management of various phases of bipolar disorder. It is important to note that the some of the recommendations in the treatment algorithm were based on the secondary outcome data from posthoc analyses.

Background:The current paper includes a systematic search of the literature, a detailed presentation of the results, and a grading of treatment options in terms of efficacy and tolerability/safety. Material and Methods: The PRISMA method was used in the literature search with the combination of the words ‘bipolar,’ ‘manic,’ ‘mania,’ ‘manic depression,’ and ‘manic depressive’ with ‘randomized,’ and ‘algorithms’ with ‘mania,’ ‘manic,’ ‘bipolar,’ ‘manic-depressive,’ or ‘manic depression.’ Relevant web pages and review articles were also reviewed. Results: The current report is based on the analysis of 57 guideline papers and 531 published papers related to RCTs, reviews, posthoc, or meta-analysis papers to March 25, 2016. The specific treatment options for acute mania, mixed episodes, acute bipolar depression, maintenance phase, psychotic and mixed features, anxiety, and rapid cycling were evaluated with regards to efficacy. Existing treatment guidelines were also reviewed. Finally, Tables reflecting efficacy and recommendation levels were created that led to the development of a precise algorithm that still has to prove its feasibility in everyday clinical practice. Conclusions: A systematic literature search was conducted on the pharmacological treatment of bipolar disorder to identify all relevant random controlled trials pertaining to all aspects of bipolar disorder and graded the data according to a predetermined method to develop a precise treatment algorithm for management of various phases of bipolar disorder. It is important to note that the some of the recommendations in the treatment algorithm were based on the secondary outcome data from posthoc analyses.

This chapter contains sections titled:<br>Introduction<br>Charles Leslie and Medical Pluralism<br>Theoretical Perspectives Interpretations of Medical Pluralism<br>The Stance of Various National Socio-Cultural Systems Toward Medical Pluralism<br>Medical Syncretism and the Transnationalization and Globalization of Medical Systems<br>Conclusion<br>References

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