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<i>Potentilla parvifolia </i>Fisch. (Rosaceae) is a traditional medicinal plant in P. R. China. In this study, seven flavonoids, ayanin (<b>1</b>), tricin (<b>2</b>), quercetin (<b>3</b>), tiliroside (<b>4</b>), miquelianin (<b>5</b>), isoquercitrin (<b>6</b>), and astragalin (<b>7</b>), were separated and purified from ethyl acetate extractive fractions from ethanol extracts of <i>P. parvifolia</i> using a combination of sevaral chromatographic methods. The human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were differentiated with all trans-retinoic acid and treated with okadaic acid to induce tau protein phosphorylation and synaptic atrophy, which could establish an Alzheimer's disease cell model. The neuroprotective effects of these flavonoids in cellular were evaluated <i>in vitro</i> by this cell model. Results from the Western blot and morphology analysis suggested that compounds <b>3</b> and <b>4</b> had the better neuroprotective effects.