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This study is aimed to explore the effect of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium combined application on the active components of Rhodiola crenulata. R. crenulata was used as the research object, "3414" fertilization experiment were conducted with regular fertilization of NPK(N 60 kg·hm⁻², P₂O₅ 100 kg·hm⁻²,KCl 160 kg·hm⁻²) to study the effect of different rates of NPK fertilization on the total amount of 4 phenolic constituents of gallic acid, salidroside, tyrol and ethyl gallate through field test. The results show that the content of salidroside was higher in the treatment of N₁P₂K₁ and N₁P₂K₂, andthe total amount of four phenols was higher in the treatment of N₁P₂K₂ and N₂P₂K₂. The suitable level of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium promoted the accumulation of the 4 kinds of phenols.The amount of fertilizer recommended by the three factor fertilizer effect equation,(N 0 kg·hm⁻²,P₂O₅ 150 kg·hm⁻²,KCl 31.71 kg·hm⁻²) obtained the highest content of salidroside, and it was 1.54%.(N 35.54 kg·hm⁻²,P₂O₅ 150 kg·hm⁻²,KCl 237.73 kg·hm⁻²)obtained the highest content of 4 kinds of phenolic compounds, and it was 1.93%. This study provides a reference for the standardization of artificial planting of endangered Tibetan medicine.