Displaying 1 - 2 of 2
Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) of various sorts—faith-based, secular, and clinical—have found increasing popularity in prison settings over the past four decades. The past two decades have seen exponential growth in the clinical application of MBIs for the treatment of various psychological disorders altogether and increasing application for offender treatment. Mindfulness training has been broadly defined as cultivating present moment awareness of sensory experience along with attitudinal qualities like openness, curiosity, nonjudgment, equanimity, empathy, and compassion. Researchers have validated the efficacy of MBIs like MBSR, DBT, ACT, MBCT, and MBRP in reducing distressing symptomatology associated with both physical illness and psychological disorders. Research has also demonstrated various salutary impacts of mindfulness training, including improvements in cognitive and emotional balance, impulse control, immune response, and overall health and well-being. Neuroscientific investigations employing various types of brain imaging demonstrate mindfulness training’s potential to positively alter the brain’s neural structures and promote healthy brain function. In particular, clinically applied MBIs show great promise for treating disorders common to prison populations like addiction, depression, dual diagnosis, and aggressive personality disorder. This chapter will review the research on the clinical applications of mindfulness and explore both existing and potential applications of MBIs in correctional settings across three categories of prevalent offender issues and needs, including (1) aggression, violence, and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), (2) substance abuse and addiction, and (3) depression, mental illness, and dual diagnosis. The emerging application of MBIs designed to improved wellness and resilience in corrections professionals will also be discussed.
Although one-third of enrolled U.S. undergraduate college students are non-White, little is known about risk factors for suicidal behavior among racial and ethnic minority students. Thus, we set out to determine psychosocial factors associated with recurrent suicidal ideation among racially and ethnically diverse college students with a history of suicide attempt. From 2012–2013, 1,734 racially and ethnically diverse college students completed an on-line survey of suicidal behavior and associated factors.Depression, hopelessness, rejection sensitivity, and mindfulness, as well as past-year discrimination, ethnic identification, and acculturative stress were measured using well-validated self-report instruments. The Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation was used to assess current suicidal ideation. A subsample of 118 college students who self-reported a past suicide attempt were selected for the current analysis. Logistic regression analysis was used to test associations between risk factors and the presence of suicidal ideation, and linear regression analysis was used to test factors associated with suicidal ideation severity among those who reported current suicidal ideation.Depression was significantly related to both the presence and severity of current suicidal ideation. Mindfulness, and in particular awareness of present moment experience, was also inversely associated with ideation severity.We found depression and mindlessness were associated with suicidal ideation severity among a sample of diverse college students at high risk for suicidal behavior due to a past suicide attempt. Factors unique to the minority experience, such as acculturative stress, were not associated with current suicidal ideation. Implications for suicide prevention are discussed.