An accurate and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the analysis of amino acids (isoleucine, leucine, valine, tyrosine, phenylalanine and tryptophan) in serum samples using a stable isotope labeling strategy. Amino acid samples and standards were, respectively, derivatized by 10-methyl-acridone-2-sulfonyl chloride (d0-MASC) and its deuterated counterpart d3-MASC to form isotopic pairs which co-eluted and were detected by an MS detector at the same time. Accurate internal standard-based quantification was thereby achieved without the use of any internal standard analogy. The labeling reaction of MASC with amino acids is fast, simple and robust. Besides, derivatization increased the molecular weight of amino acids, and therefore they were shifted out of the background noise which was often observed in low mass region. The instrument LODs were in the range of 1.0-2.5 nmol/L. Linearities calculated by comparing theoretical peak area ratios of d0-/d3-MASC derivatives with the experimental peak area ratios were excellent with correlation coefficients of >0.995. The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of amino acids in serum samples with high sensitivity and accuracy.
Thirteen kinds of anti-anoxic Tibetan traditional medicine including Hongjingtianjiaonang, Anshensan, Wuweishiliusan, Zhangsongbaweichenxiangsan, Shiliuweidujuansan, Ershiwuweiyuganziwan, Ershiwuweizhuhuangjiaonang, Shiwuweilongdanwan, Mijueqingliangsan, Qishiweizhenzhuwan, Bawei-chenxiangsan, Liuweidingxiangsan and Qiweiputansan were digested with HNO3-HClO4 mixed acid. Fourteen trace elements and macro elements in the 13 kinds of anti-anoxic Tibetan traditional medicine, such as silver, aluminium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, ferrum, hydrargyrum, magnesium, manganese, nickel, lead, stannum and zinc were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (FAAS). The results showed that there were comparatively rich trace elements and macro elements in kinds of anti-anoxic Tibetan traditional Medicine. The 13 Anti-anoxic Tibetan traditional medicine contains higher amount of ferrum, magnesium, copper, chromium, zinc and manganese than other elements. This provided useful data for discussing the relationship between trace elements and macro elements and anti-anoxic activities in Tibetan traditional medicine.
Ten trace elements and macro elements in Jin He Nao Xue Kang capsules, such as Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results showed that there are comparatively rich macro element Mg, and profitable elements such as trace elements Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Ni etc in Jin He Nao Xue Kang capsules. The contents of poisonous elements (Cd and Pb) are comparatively low. The content sequence of metal elements is as follow: Fe>Mg>Zn>Mn>Cu>Ni>Cr>Pb>Co>Cd. It provided useful data for discussing the relationship between trace elements and macro elements in Tibetan traditional medicine, and the cure for vascular and cerebral vascular disease.
Tibetan medicinal plants have been used for more than 2 000 years. In order to find their differences in antioxidant activity, total phenolics and total flavonoids between "hot-nature" and "cold-nature" herbs, we investigated the antioxidant activities of 40 Tibetan herbs from Qinghai plateau, with 20 herbs in cold-nature and 20 herbs in hot-nature. Antioxidant capacities were evaluated by the following methods: scavenging ABTS•(+) (2, 2'azinobis-(3-ethylbenz-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), scavenging O2•(-), and Ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). The effects on inhibition of mitochondrion lipid peroxidation were determined by measuring the formation of TBARS (Thiobarbituric acid reactive substrates). Total phenolics and flavonoids were estimated by Folin-Ciocalteu and NaNO2-Al(NO3)3-NaOH colorimetric methods. Interestingly, the cold-nature herbs displayed higher antioxidant activities than the hot-nature ones, corresponding to nearly three-fold higher total phenolic contents in the cold-nature herbs. Moreover, the antioxidant activities correlated linearly with the levels of total phenolics for both cold-nature and hot-nature herbs, but only with the levels of total flavonoids for the hot-nature herbs. The results suggested that the phenolic compounds, but not the flavonoids, play the major role in antioxidant capacities of the cold-nature herbs. These findings could shed new lights on the study the theory of Tibetan medicine.
Abstract Juniperus pingii var. wilsonii has been traditionally used in Tibetan medicine for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. In the present study, J. pingii var. wilsonii polysaccharides (JPWP), with high content of d ‑galacturonic acid, showed potent anti-complementary activity in vitro and significantly attenuated acute lung injury (ALI) induced by H1N1 influenza virus in vivo through reducing the inflammatory responses, alleviating oxidative stress and inhibiting the activation of complement. Thus, anti-complementary activity-guided fractionation of JPWP led to the isolation of an acidic homogeneous polysaccharide, JPWP-PS, whose structure was further elucidated by acid hydrolysis, PMP derivation, methylation and NMR analysis. JPWP-PS had potent anti-complementary activity with the CH 50 value of 0.073 ± 0.009 mg/mL, and was characterized by the residues of T-Ara f -(1→, →3)-Ara f -(1→, →3,5)-Ara f -(1→, →3)-Gal p -(1→ and →4)-Gal p A-(1→. Graphical abstract Unlabelled Image Highlights • Juniperus pingii var. wilsonii polysaccharides (JPWP) improved survival rate of H1N1 virus infected mice. • JPWP treated acute lung injury via inhibiting inflammatory responses, oxidative stress and activation of complement. • A homogeneous acidic polysaccharide with potent anti-complementary activity was isolated from JPWP. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the chemical components and microstructure of Nengchi Bajin ashes which are adjuvant material in the refining of Tibetan medicine gTSo thal, in order to explore the material basis of the refining of gTSo thal.METHOD: Scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to measure the Nengchi Bajin ashes. RESULT: SEM-EDX analysis show that except of themselves elements of Nengchi Bajin ashes, Nengchi Bajin ashes contain the major elements, such as S, O, C and so on, also contain small amount other elements. XRD analysis show that the structures are AuPb2, PbO (tetragonal and orthorhombic) and Pb in gold ash, Ag2S and PbO in silver ash, Cu1.98 (Zn0.73 Fe0.29)Sn0.99 S4, CuS, SiO2, NaCu2S2 and Ca (Fe(+2), Mg) (CO3)2 in bronze ash, Cu7S4 (orthorhombic and monoclinic) and CuO in red copper ash, Cu7 S4, PbS, ZnS, CaCO3and NaCu2S2 in brass ash, FeS, Fe+2 Fe(2+3)O4 and SiO2 in iron ash, SnS and SiO2 tin ash, PbS, PbSO4 and SnS2 in lead ash. CONCLUSION: We have acquired the datum of elements and microstructure of Nengchi Bajin ashes by SEM-EDX and XRD techniques, and that is benefit to explore the material basis of refining gTSo thal.
In order to reveal the chemical substance basis of pharmacodynamic effects of Zuotai, energy dispersive spectrometry of X-ray (EDX), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), synchrotron radiation X-ray absorption fine structure (SR-XAFS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) were used to analyze the elements, the chemical valence and local structure of mercury, and the chemical phase composition and micro-morphology of Zuotai. EDX and XRF analysis shows that the main elements in Zuotai are Hg and S, with some other minor elements, such as 0, Fe, Al, Cu, K, Ag, Ca, Mg etc. SR-XAFS analysis shows that: the oxidation state of mercury in Zuotai is divalence, its neighbor atoms are S, and its coordination number is four. XRD assay found that β-HgS (cubic, F-43m 216) and S8 (orthorhombic, Fddd 70) are the main phase compositions in Zuotai. Besides, it also has a small amount of C (hexagonal, P63/mmc 194), Fel.05 S0.95 (hexagonal, P63/mmc 194), Cu6S6 (hexagonal, P63/mmc 194), Cu1.8 S (cubic, F-43m 216) and so on. And it was found that the crystallinity of Zuotai is about 59%, and the amorphous morphology substance in it is about 41%. SEM and AFM detection suggests that Zuotai is a kind of ancient micro-nano drug, and its particle size is mainly in the range of 100-600 nm, even less than 100 nm, which commonly further aggregate into several to 30 µm loose amorphous particles. In summary, the present study elucidated physicochemical characterization(elements composition, coordination information of mercury, phase composition and micro-morphology) of Zuotai, and it will play a positive role in promoting the interpretation of this mysterious drug.;
OBJECTIVE: To establish a method for determination of 10 ingredients such as gentiopicroside, sweroside, and mangiferin in India swertia, and settle the index components and their limits.METHOD: By Welch materials AQ-C18 column, determination was conducted by the gradient elution with methanol and 0.4% formic acid as mobile phase, with column temperature 30 degrees C, flow rate at 1.0 mL x min(-1), and 254 nm as the detection wavelength. RESULT: The linear relatives of 10 ingredients were good. The method showed the high precision and good reproducibility, and recovery rates were between 97% and 103%. The ingredients of market com-modities varied greatly. CONCLUSION: This method is simple, sensitive, reproducible, and applicable to the determination of the main ingredients in India Swertia. Sweroside and mango glycosides were suggested as the index components for determination in Jia Di (Swertia chirayita), and their content limits are not less than 0.1%, 0.3%, respectively.
A new fluorescent labeling reagent, benzimidazo[2,1-<i>b</i>]quinazolin-12(6<i>H</i>)-one-5-ethyl-<i>p</i>-toluenesulfonate (BQETS) was designed and synthesized, and it was successfully applied to the determination of fatty acids with liquid chromatography. BQETS can easily and quickly label fatty acids within 20 min at 90 °C in dimethylformamide with K<sub>2</sub>CO<sub>3</sub> as catalyst. The derivatives exhibit high stability and strong fluorescence with excitation and emission wavelengths of 247 and 401 nm, respectively. The 24 derivatives of fatty acids were completely separated by gradient elution on a Hypersil GOLD C18 column. Excellent linear responses for all fatty acids were observed with correlation coefficients of >0.9991. The method also showed good sensitivity and precision, with limits of detection in the 0.0024-0.0206 μg g<sup>−1</sup> range and relative standard deviations ≤9.6 %. This is the first time that BQETS fluorescent probe and its applications for the determination of fatty acids have been reported. Moreover, this is the first report on the comparison of free fatty acids composition in the above-ground part of <i>Coriandrum sativum</i> L. from different habitats in China.
Abstract This presented study describes a method based on high performance liquid chromatography combined with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) using N-(2-iodoacetyl)-1-pyrenemethylamine (NIPA) as a novel fluorescence labeling reagent for the determination of thyreostats in bovine milk. Five thyreostats, belonging to the group of imidazole and thiouracil, were investigated in this work: tapazole (TAP), thiouracil (TU), methylthiouracil (MTU), propylthiouracil (PTU) and phenylthiouracial (PhTU). Thyreostats were specifically purified by a silver ion solid phase extraction (Ag-SPE) cartridge and then labeled using NIPA. The labeled derivatives showed excellent fluorescence property with maximum excitation and emission wavelengths of 330 nm and 375 nm, respectively. The labeled derivatives were separated on a reversed-phase Eclipse SB-C18 column within 12 min. Excellent linearity (R2 > 0.995) of all thyreostats was achieved with the limits of detection (LODs) and the limits of quantitation (LOQs) in the low micrograms per liter range of 0.21–0.30 μg/L and 0.70–1.00 μg/L, respectively. Satisfactory recoveries in the range of 93.5–98.0% were obtained for all thyreostats. The developed method has been successfully applied to analyze thyreostats in bovine milk with good applicability. Thirty bovine milk samples have been investigated, and varying levels of thiouracil were detected in thirteen of these samples. The highest level in the raw milk reached a value of 4.5 μg/L. To our best knowledge, this study is the first to report the presence of naturally occurring thiouracil in milk by HPLC-FLD analysis. Highlights • A pre-column derivatization HPLC-FLD method was developed for the determination of thyreostats in milk samples. • LOD was in the low micrograms per liter range of 0.21–0.30 μg·L−1. • The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of thyreostats in milk sample. • This study is the first to report the presence of naturally occurring thiouracil in milk by HPLC-FLD analysis.
Chemical isotope labelling in combination with high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (CIL-HPLC-MS/MS) is a powerful method for quantitative profiling of targeted molecules. In the current work, we successfully developed a novel CIL-HPLC-MS/MS method for quantitative profiling of residual organophosphorus thioester pesticides (OPTPs) in agricultural products through the determination of the cleavage products of thiol (CP-thiol) compounds. In this method, we synthesized a novel pair of CIL reagents, i.e., N-(4-(carbazole-9-yl)-phenyl)-N-maleimide (NCPM-d0) and its deuterated analogue NCPM-d2, both of which contain a maleimide moiety as the reactive group and an isotope tag to sensitively label CP-thiol compounds. NCPM-d0 was used to label CP-thiol compounds cleaved from OPTPs in the investigated agricultural product samples, and NCPM-d2 was used to label CP-thiol compounds cleaved from OPTPs in the standard substance-spiked organic agricultural product samples. The heavily labelled derivatives were used as the internal standards (ISs) to compensate for the matrix effects during MS analysis. The NCPM-d0- and NCPM-d2-labelled derivatives generated two characteristic product ions (PIs) at m/z 372.5 and 374.5 under collision induced dissociation, respectively, which are used to establish the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode-based detection. The precursor ions of NCPM-d0 and NCPM-d2 labelled derivatives of CP-thiol compounds were deduced according to the structures of the OPTPs. The peak pairs with a fixed mass difference and similar retention times were assigned as potential CP-thiol candidates for the identification of the corresponding OPTPs. Using the proposed method, we successfully determined seven residual OPTPs in agricultural product samples. Taken together, the presented method was demonstrated to be a promising new technique in the quantitation of OPTPs in agricultural product samples with high reliability.
A pair of stable isotope labeling (SIL) reagents, <b>N</b>-(4-(carbazole-9-yl)-phenyl)-<b>N</b>-maleimide (NCPM-d0) and its heavy analogue NCPM-d2, were used for labeling thiol-containing drugs. On basis of SIL, a global isotope internal standard quantitative method for the detection of five thiol-containing drugs by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was developed. The NCPM-d0 and NCPM-d2 can easily label thiol-containing drugs under mild conditions within 10 min at 40 °C. The NCPM-d0 and NCPM-d2 labeled thiol-containing drugs can generate two characteristic product ions (<b>m</b>/<b>z</b> at 372.5 and 374.5) under collision induced dissociation, respectively, which is used to establish the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) based detection. The NCPM labeling combined with MRM analysis not only allowed trace detection of thiol-containing drugs due to the extremely high sensitivity, but also efficiently corrected the matrix effects during HPLC-MS/MS and the instrument fluctuation in the MS/MS signal intensity. The detection sensitivities of thiol-containing drugs improved by 14.5-650.5-fold due to NCPM-labeling, while the matrix and ion suppression effects were markedly minimized by the SIL strategy. The limits of detection (LODs) and the limits of quantitation (LOQs) were in the range 10.0-15.0 ng·mL−1 and 31.0-50.0 ng·mL−1, respectively. The proposed method was used for the simultaneous determination of five thiol-containing drugs in plasma samples with satisfactory recoveries in the range of 95.0-97.5%.<br>• A stable isotope labeling strategy for analyzing thiol-containing drugs has been developed. • A pair of SIL reagents NCPM-d0 and NCPM-d2 were used to label thiol-containing drugs. • The detection sensitivities of thiol-containing drugs improved by 14.5-650.5-fold. • The proposed method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetic study of captopril.
A simple, sensitive, and selective high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method using 9-(2-iodoethyl)acridone (IEA) as a novel fluorescence derivatizing agent for the simultaneous determination of six thiophenols has been developed. An efficient Pb<sup>2+</sup>-modified OASIS-MCX cartridge was used and could get good recoveries. IEA was successfully used to label thiophenols with high sensitivity and excellent selectivity. The effects of different solvents, pH, and surfactants on fluorescence properties of derivatives were investigated. To obtain the best labeling efficiency, derivatizing parameters including pH value, temperature, and concentration of IEA, as well as types of catalysts were also evaluated in detail. Under the optimal conditions, the separation could be achieved within 12 min with limits of detection (LODs) in the range of 0.6-5.8 μg L<sup>−1</sup> and relative standard deviations (RSDs) < 3.9 %. This is the first time that IEA was applied to the analysis of thiophenols, and the established method has been successfully applied to the trace level detection of thiophenols in industrial wastewater samples.
A novel hyphenated technique based on ultrasonic-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (UA-DLLME) coupled with derivatization has been established for the determination of brassinolide (BL, a representative of brassinosteroids) by HPLC fluorescence detection. 9-Phenanthreneboronic acid is used as labeling reagent of BL. UA-DLLME parameters containing type and volume of extraction and disperser solvent, pH and ultrasonication time are optimized. Derivatization parameters are optimized included amount of 9-phenanthreneboronic acid, volume ratio of pyridine, derivatization time and temperature. Under optimal conditions, quantitative linear range of BL is 50-1,000 ng L<sup>−1</sup> and excellent linear response is observed with correlation coefficient of 0.9996. Limit of detection and limit of quantification are calculated as 8.0 and 25.0 ng L<sup>−1</sup>, respectively. RSDs of retention time and peak area are in the range of 0.68-0.97 % and 4.61-6.54 % for intra-day precision, 1.32-1.94 % and 7.28-9.75 % for inter-day precision, respectively. Accuracy is satisfactory in the range of 82.3-125.1 %. RSDs’ values of repeatability are in the range of 0.82-1.79 and 3.95-8.53 % for retention time and peak area, respectively. Enrichment factor for BL is 189. The results of recovery and matrix effect are in the range of 82.0-108.6 and 90.0-115.3 %, respectively. The proposed method has been applied for the determination of BL in <i>Arabidopsis thaliana</i>, <i>Daucus carota</i> and <i>Brassica campestris</i> L. leaves with much higher sensitivity than many other methods.
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Ephedragerardiana (Ephedraceae), occurring in the Himalayan ranges, is an important plant species used in Tibetan medicine. Due to the lack of molecular markers to characterize genetic diversity, knowledge for conservation and uses of E. gerardiana resources is limited; we therefore developed microsatellite markers for use in this species.METHODS AND RESULTS: Using Illumina MiSeq sequencing technology, we developed 29 polymorphic microsatellite loci suitable for E. gerardiana, of which 15 loci also showed polymorphisms in two related Ephedra species, E. saxatilis and E. monosperma. The average number of effective alleles per locus ranged from two to six. The observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.23 to 0.83 and 0.44 to 0.86, respectively, in E. gerardiana populations. CONCLUSIONS: The developed 29 microsatellite markers are effective for the study of genetic structure and genetic diversity of E. gerardiana, and 15 of these markers are suitable for related Ephedra species.
Agroforestry system, as the most promising substitute plantation approach, has been widely regarded as a prominent strategy for mitigating the conflicts between rapid growing population and limited arable land resources. This paper aims to screen the optimal planting pattern for <i>Gentiana rigescens</i> base on the content of gentiopicroside, providing the scientific basis for sustainable supply and application of this plant. Generally, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is effective to integrally monitor and reflect the whole constituents of natural materials. FTIR combined with chemometrics was used for distinguishing the <i>G. rigescens</i> from different compound planting models in this research. The result of partial least square discriminant analysis implied that planting year of <i>G. rigescens</i> had a greater impact on the content of gentiopicroside than that of <i>Camellia sinensis</i>. The gentiopicroside content in 1.5- or 2-year-old <i>G. rigescens</i> was higher. Wavelet denoising was effective for the classification. Samples which had higher contents of gentiopicroside were clustered together relatively, while those with lower contents of gentiopicroside were classified into the other large category. Our investigation revealed that <i>G. rigescens</i> can be successfully cultivated with <i>C. sinensis</i>, which met the requirement of the gentiopicroside content recommended by Pharmacopoeia of the People’s Republic of China. That 2-year-old <i>G. rigescens</i> grown with 12-year-old <i>C. sinensis</i> was the optimal compound planting pattern, according this study. The present study provided the optimal compound planting pattern of <i>G. rigescens</i>, which is helpful for improving land-use efficiency and economic returns.
<p>…a meeting convened … to identify priorities for providing guidance to educators and policy makers on appropriate assessment strategies and systems in order to promote and ensure high-quality educational opportunities that foster the social-emotional development and academic performance of preschool and elementary-school children…</p>
This study is aimed to explore the effect of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium combined application on the active components of Rhodiola crenulata. R. crenulata was used as the research object, "3414" fertilization experiment were conducted with regular fertilization of NPK(N 60 kg·hm⁻², P₂O₅ 100 kg·hm⁻²,KCl 160 kg·hm⁻²) to study the effect of different rates of NPK fertilization on the total amount of 4 phenolic constituents of gallic acid, salidroside, tyrol and ethyl gallate through field test. The results show that the content of salidroside was higher in the treatment of N₁P₂K₁ and N₁P₂K₂, andthe total amount of four phenols was higher in the treatment of N₁P₂K₂ and N₂P₂K₂. The suitable level of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium promoted the accumulation of the 4 kinds of phenols.The amount of fertilizer recommended by the three factor fertilizer effect equation,(N 0 kg·hm⁻²,P₂O₅ 150 kg·hm⁻²,KCl 31.71 kg·hm⁻²) obtained the highest content of salidroside, and it was 1.54%.（N 35.54 kg·hm⁻²,P₂O₅ 150 kg·hm⁻²,KCl 237.73 kg·hm⁻²）obtained the highest content of 4 kinds of phenolic compounds, and it was 1.93%. This study provides a reference for the standardization of artificial planting of endangered Tibetan medicine.
Waldheimia glabra is traditionally used as incense and as an anti-influenza drug by Tibetans in China. Here, we collected W. glabra from the Gangs Rinpoche mountain at an altitude of 5200 m, and analyzed its essential oil by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) combined with the retention indices (RI). Twenty-seven compounds, representing 72.4% of the total essential oil, were identified, including α-bisabolol (20.2%), valeranone (11.8%), chamazulene (9.9%), spathulenol (8.2%), β-caryophyllene (6.1%), and caryophyllene oxide (5.2%). Bioactivity evaluation of the essential oil revealed that it exhibited potent anti-influenza effect on viruses H3N2 and anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7 macrophages, but no anti-complementary activity.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the medicinal reasonableness and resource utilization of Dida from different species.METHOD: With common characteristic absorption peaks of HPLC fingerprints and SPSS cluster, the composition similarity of Dida from different species was evaluated. RESULT: The composition similarity of HPLC fingerprints of 33 Dida samples from 15 species and 1 variety originated from Swertia, Halenia, Gentianopsis, Lomatogonium was difference. The original species can be clustered into four groups by the relative area of 10 common characteristic peaks of HPLC fingerprints. The compositions of four different genera are quite different. CONCLUSION: Because of containing iridoids, xanthones, and triterpenes which have liver protection and cholagogue functions, all of species from Swertia, Halenia, Gentianopsis and Lomatogonium in Gentianaceae are classified as Dida in Tibetan medicine. According to the composition difference among different species, the HPLC fingerprints established for Dida from different source are an effective means to identify nd control the quality of Dida.
PurposeAlthough the effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) for panic disorder (PD) has been studied previously, data on the predictors of treatment outcomes in MBCT for PD are scarce. Materials and Methods Eighty patients with PD were screened to analyze treatment outcomes such as MBCT completion, treatment response, and remission after undergoing MBCT for PD. Sociodemographic characteristics, comorbid personality disorders, and baseline medication doses were examined. The study administered the Panic Disorder Severity Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Anxiety Sensitivity Inventory-Revised to patients at baseline and at eight weeks. Results Sixty-five participants were enrolled in the present study. Comorbid personality disorder was significantly associated with MBCT non-completion. We found that anxiety sensitivity (AS) improvement after an eight week MBCT program was a statistically significant factor associated with treatment response. Using logistic regression analysis, AS improvement after MBCT showed significant association with PD remission after MBCT. Conclusion Comorbid personality disorders of participants could be a potential predictor of MBCT non-completion. Furthermore, AS improvement after MBCT may predict treatment response and remission after MBCT for PD. However, better designed studies with a larger number of patients are needed to confirm our findings.
Sibiraea angustataleaves, known as a traditional Tibetan medicine, have been specially used in the treatment of indigestion and obesity. In the study, a simple and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with a diode array detector (DAD) was established to solve the problem of lacking quality standard ofS. angustataleaves, including the fingerprint analysis and quantification of six characteristic components. The analytical method was validated for linearity, repeatability, stability, recovery, and specificity. Seventeen raw samples and 1 processed sample ofS. angustataleaves were collected from different locations of China to establish the fingerprint. The chemometric methods, including similarity analysis (SA), principal component analysis (PCA), and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA), were applied to distinguish the 18 batches ofS. angustatasamples. The results successfully sorted these samples into five clusters and kept in line with each other. According to the result of the fingerprint analysis, 21 peaks were extracted to be the common peaks and most of them were identified by mass spectrometry (MS) with electron-spray ionization (ESI) in the negative mode. Meanwhile, the loading plot of PCA further indicated that the peaks of neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid, rutin, hyperin, and isoquercitrin played a greater role in the discrimination among the 21 peaks. So the six components mentioned above were investigated as index constituents to evaluate the quality ofS. angustataleaves from different locations. The study demonstrated that the developed new method was a beneficial approach for authentication and quality evaluation ofS. angustataleaves. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]