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Several studies have documented the beneficial short term effects of yoga in type 2 diabetics. In this prospective two-armed interventional randomized control study, 277 type 2 diabetics of both genders aged above 28 years who satisfied the study criteria were recruited from 5 zones in and around Bengaluru, India. They were allocated to a yoga-based life style modification program or exercise-based life style modification program. Integrated yoga special technique for diabetes included yogasanas, pranayama, meditation and lectures on yogic life style. Control intervention included physical exercises and life style education. Medication score, blood glucose, HbA1c and lipid profile were assessed at baseline and after 9 months. Intention to treat analysis showed better reduction (P < 0.05, Mann-Whitney test) in the dose of oral hypoglycemic medication required (Yoga - 12.8 %) (Yoga-12.3 %) and increase in HDL (Yoga-7 %) in Yoga as compared to the control group; FBG reduced (7.2 %, P = 0.016) only in the Yoga group. There was significant reduction within groups (P < 0.01) in PPBG (Yoga-14.6 %, Control-9 %), HbA1c (Yoga-14.1 %, Control-0.5 %), Triglycerides (Yoga-15.4 %, Control-16.3 %), VLDL (Yoga-21.5 %, Control-5.2 %) and total cholesterol (Yoga-11.3 %, Control-8.6 %). Thus, Yoga based life style modification program is similar to exercise-based life style modification in reducing blood glucose, HbA1c, triglycerides, total cholesterol and VLDL. Yoga is better than exercise in decreasing oral hypoglycemic medication requirement and LDL; and increasing HDL in type 2 diabetics.

OBJECTIVE: Do a factor analysis of the Greene Climacteric Scale for a population of Indian perimenopausal women and establish normative values. METHODS: Five hundred and eighteen women, in the age range 45-55 years, were selected and asked to fill out the Greene Climacteric Scale. RESULTS: The mean age of the women was 48.03+/-3.40 years. A factor analysis of the data using an oblique rotation yielded three distinct factors with loadings more than 0.4. The breakup of the psychological factor into an anxiety and a depression factor which has been hypothesized earlier could only be verified using varimax rotation. The last item, "Loss of sexual interest" is shown to be part of the vasomotor factor. The means of the scores on the three factors are: psychological: 8.28+/-5.87, somatic: 4.64+/-3.73 and vasomotor: 2.39+/-2.10. These are much lower than the values given by Greene, but are in consonance with values published in two earlier studies for different populations.

OBJECTIVE: To compare the long term effects of yoga based cardiac rehabilitation program with only physiotherapy based program as an add-on to conventional rehabilitation after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) on risk factors. METHODS: In this single blind prospective randomized parallel two armed active control study, 1026 patients posted for CABG at Narayana Hrudayalaya Institute of Cardiac Sciences, Bengaluru (India) were screened. Of these, 250 male participants (35-65 years) who satisfied the selection criteria and consented were randomized into two groups. Within and between group comparisons were done at three points of follow up (i.e. 6th week, 6th month, and 12th month) by using Wilcoxon's signed ranks test and Mann Whitney U test respectively. RESULTS: Yoga group had significantly (p = 0.001, Mann Whitney) better improvement in LVEF than control group in those with abnormal baseline EF (/=23) after 12 months. Yoga group showed significant (p = 0.008, Wilcoxon's) reduction in blood glucose at one year in those with high baseline FBS >/=110 mg/dl. There was significantly better improvement in yoga than the control group in HDL (p = 0.003), LDL (p = 0.01) and VLDL (p = 0.03) in those with abnormal baseline values. There was significantly better improvement (p = 0.02, between groups) in positive affect in yoga group. Within Yoga group, there was significant decrease in perceived stress (p = 0.001), anxiety (p = 0.001), depression (p = 0.001), and negative affect (p = 0.03) while in the control group there was reduction (p = 0.003) only in scores on anxiety. CONCLUSION: Addition of yoga based relaxation to conventional post-CABG cardiac rehabilitation helps in better management of risk factors in those with abnormal baseline values and may help in preventing recurrence.