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BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:Prevailing literature explains how depression, compulsion, and mindfulness affect heroin use; however, there is no comprehensive framework that explains their overall relationships. We therefore proposed and examined a hypothetical depression-compulsion-heroin use and mindfulness (DCHm) model. METHODS: We recruited 234 male heroin users. Self-reported levels of depression, mindfulness, compulsion to use, and severity of heroin use were measured. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the proposed DCHm model. RESULTS: Compulsion was a mediator between depression and heroin use. In addition, the DCHm model had satisfactory model fit indices. Depression indirectly affected heroin use through compulsion to use. The moderating effects of mindfulness in the two competing models were compared between the high- and low-mindfulness groups. The DCHm model in the high-mindfulness group had more favorable model fit indices than it did in the low-mindfulness group. CONCLUSIONS: Through learned emotional regulation strategies, addicted people with higher mindfulness were less likely to compulsively take drugs because of a depressive mood than were those with lower mindfulness. Furthermore, effective emotion-regulation strategies should be developed and examined in future studies. SCIENTIFIC SIGNIFICANCE: These results raise questions about the effect of compulsion on heroin use disorders. Mindfulness-based approaches to emotional regulatory strategies should be developed based on these findings. Further experimentation and prospective studies are needed to more fully examine the moderating role of mindfulness on depression and compulsion.

IntroductionThe current study evaluated effects of an adapted version of Mindfulness-Based Relapse Prevention (MBRP) on several psychosocial indices in a sample of incarcerated adult males with substance use disorders. Method: This study used a 2 (baseline vs post-session) × 2 (MBRP vs. treatment-as-usual (TAU) mixed design. Twenty-four incarcerated individuals with a history of substance abuse were randomly assigned to either MBRP or TAU. At pre- and post-session assessment points, participants completed the Drug Use Identification Disorders Test- Extended (DUDIT-E), the Drug Avoidance Self-Efficacy Scale (DASE) and positive/negative outcome expectancies (Ep/En). The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) was completed in each weekly session of MBRP. MANOVA and repeated measures ANOVA examined changes between and within subjects, with the significant level set at 0.05. Results No between-group differences were found on positive outcome expectancies or self-efficacy. Differences BDI-II scores among MBRP participants showed a downward trend over time. A Group × Time effect emerged for negative outcome expectancies, with significant differences between groups at post-course assessment. Conclusions Results from this randomized trial suggest pre- to post-intervention trend-level effects of MBRP on depression, and significant group differences over time and at post-course on negative outcome expectancies, with the MBRP group reporting increases

We examined the relationship between the “Big-Five” personality factors and levels of mindfulness at baseline, and the predictive value of these personality factors on changes in mindfulness after eight weeks of mindfulness-based training. All participants were followed-up for eight weeks. Sixty-three incarcerated adult males with drug abuse disorders completed self-report assessments of mindfulness, depression, and personality. Four of the five personality factors (Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism) were significantly associated with Decentering of mindfulness at baseline. Neuroticism and OPENNESS to Experience were significantly related to Curiosity. There was a significant baseline-to-post-course difference on the Decentering subscale; however, the results unexpectedly contradicted our hypothesis. There were no significant baseline-to-post-course differences on the Curiosity subscale. After controlling for post-course depression, none of the Big-Five personality factor traits significantly predicted post-course Curiosity and Decentering. The effects of the Big-Five personality factors on outcomes of mindfulness-based intervention for drug abusers were preliminarily confirmed, but a randomized longitudinal study is required to reconfirm our findings.