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High-speed counter-current chromatography (CCC) was firstly and successfully applied for the preparative separation and purification of alkaloids from crude extract of Hypecoum leptocarpum. After the measurement of partition coefficient of five target alkaloids in the two-phase solvent systems, the CCC was performed well with a two-phase solvent system composed of tetrachloromethane-chloroform-methanol-0.1 M HCl at a volume ratio of 1.5 : 2.5 : 3 : 2 (V/V/V/V). The upper phase was used as the stationary phase, and the lower phase was used as the mobile phase. From 120 mg crude extract, 5 mg leptopidine, 32 mg oxohydrastinine, 27 mg (-)-N-methylanadine, 7 mg N-feruloyltyramine and 3 mg hypecoleptopine could be successfully separated. The amides alkaloid, N-feruloyltyramine, was firstly separated from H. leptocarpum. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that the purity of each of the five target alkaloids was over 92%. Their chemical structures were confirmed by (1)H-NMR and (13)C-NMR data.
High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was successfully applied for the first time to isolate and purify four cis-trans isomers of coumaroylspermidine analogs from Safflower. HSCCC separation was achieved with a two-phase solvent system composed of chloroform-methanol-water (1:1:1, v/v/v) with the upper phase as the mobile phase. In a single run, a total of 1.3mg of N(1), N(5), N(10)-(E)-tri-p-coumaroylspermidine (EEE), 4.4mg of N(1)(E)-N(5)-(Z)-N(10)-(E)-tri-p-coumaroylspermidine (EZE), 7.2mg of N(1)(Z)-N(5)-(Z)-N(10)-(E)-tri-p-coumaroylspermidine (ZZE), and 11.5mg of N(1),N(5),N(10)-(Z)-tri-p-coumaroylspermidine (ZZZ) were obtained from 100mg of crude sample. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that the purities of these four components are 95.5%, 98.1%, 97.5% and 96.2%, respectively. The chemical structures were identified by ESI-MS, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR.
Anthocyanins are the main compounds in Nitraria tangutorun Bobr. The enrichment and purification of anthocyanins on macroporous resins were investigated. Regarding anthocyanin purification, static adsorption and desorption were studied. The optimal experimental conditions were the following: resin type: X-5; static adsorption time: 6h; desorption solution: ethanol-water-HCl (80:19:1, V/V/V; pH 1); desorption time: 40min. Furthermore, the in vitro and in vivo biological activities of the anthocyanins were evaluated. The anthocyanins showed ideal scavenging effects on free radicals in vitro, especially on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl free radical (OH). In the animal experiment, blood lipid metabolism of hyperlipidemia rats was regulated by anthocyanin contents. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of hyperlipidemia rats were also improved by anthocyanins. These results showed that anthocyanins from N. tangutorun Bobr. fruits had potential biological activities in vivo as well as in vitro.