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High throughput sequencing technology is also called Next Generation Sequencing (NGS), which can sequence hundreds and thousands sequences in different samples at the same time. In the present study, the culture-independent high throughput sequencing technology was applied to sequence the fungi metagenomic DNA of the fungal internal transcribed spacer 1(ITS 1) in the root of Sinopodophyllum hexandrum. Sequencing data suggested that after the quality control, 22 565 reads were remained. Cluster similarity analysis was done based on 97% sequence similarity, which obtained 517 OTUs for the three samples (LD1, LD2 and LD3). All the fungi which identified from all the reads of OTUs based on 0.8 classification thresholds using the software of RDP classifier were classified as 13 classes, 35 orders, 44 family, 55 genera. Among these genera, the genus of Tetracladium was the dominant genera in all samples(35.49%, 68.55% and 12.96%).The Shannon's diversity indices and the Simpson indices of the endophytic fungi in the samples ranged from 1.75-2.92, 0.11-0.32, respectively.This is the first time for applying high through put sequencing technol-ogyto analyze the community composition and diversity of endophytic fungi in the medicinal plant, and the results showed that there were hyper diver sity and high community composition complexity of endophytic fungi in the root of S. hexandrum. It is also proved that the high through put sequencing technology has great advantage for analyzing ecommunity composition and diversity of endophtye in the plant.

The present study investigated the relative effects of mindfulness, reappraisal and suppression in reducing sadness, and the extent to which implementation of these strategies affects cognitive resources in a laboratory context. A total of 171 Singaporean undergraduate participants were randomly assigned to receive brief training in mindfulness, reappraisal, or suppression prior to undergoing a sad mood induction. Individual adherence to Asian cultural values was assessed as a potential moderator of strategy effectiveness. Participants rated their mood and completed a Color-Word Stroop task before and after mood regulation instructions. Analyses using multi-level modelling showed that the suppression condition caused less robust declines in sadness over time compared to mindfulness. There was also a nonsignificant trend in which mindfulness was associated with greater sadness recovery compared to reappraisal. Suppression resulted in lower average sadness compared to mindfulness among those high on Asian cultural values, but not those low on Asian cultural values. Both mindfulness and reappraisal buffered against increases in Stroop interference from pre-to post-regulation compared to suppression. The findings highlight the advantage of mindfulness as a strategy effective not only in the regulation of sad mood, but also in the preservation of cognitive resources in the context of mood regulation.

OBJECTIVES:Our aim was to evaluate differences in metabolite levels between unmedicated patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and healthy controls, to assess changes in metabolites in patients after they completed an 8-week course of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT), and to exam the correlation between metabolites and depression severity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixteen patients with MDD and ten age- and gender-matched healthy controls were studied using 3D short echo-time (20 ms) magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) at 7 Tesla. Relative metabolite ratios were estimated in five regions of interest corresponding to insula, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), caudate, putamen, and thalamus. RESULTS: In all cases, MBCT reduced severity of depression. The ratio of total choline-containing compounds/total creatine (tCr) in the right caudate was significantly increased compared to that in healthy controls, while ratios of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA)/tCr in the left ACC, myo-inositol/tCr in the right insula, and glutathione/tCr in the left putamen were significantly decreased. At baseline, the severity of depression was negatively correlated with my-inositol/tCr in the left insula and putamen. The improvement in depression severity was significantly associated with changes in NAA/tCr in the left ACC. CONCLUSIONS: This study has successfully evaluated regional differences in metabolites for patients with MDD who received MBCT treatment and in controls using 7 Tesla MRSI.

Swertia mussotii Franch. and Swertia chirayita Buch.-Ham. have been commonly used under the same name "Zangyinchen" for the treatment of liver and gallbladder diseases in traditional Tibetan medicine. Detailed characterization and comparison of the complete set of metabolites of these two species are critical for their objective identification and quality control. In this study, a rapid, simple and comprehensive (1)H NMR-based metabolomics method was first developed to differentiate the two species. A broad range of metabolites, including iridoid glycosides, xanthones, triterpenoids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, and amino acids, were identified. Statistical analysis showed evident differences between the two species, and the major markers responsible for the differences were screened. In addition, quantitative (1)H NMR method (qHNMR) was used for the target analysis of the discriminating metabolites. The results showed that S. mussotii had significantly higher contents of gentiopicrin, isoorientin, glucose, loganic acid, and choline, whereas S. chirayita exhibited higher levels of swertiamarin, oleanolic acid, valine, and fatty acids. These findings indicate that (1)H NMR-based metabolomics is a reliable and effective method for the metabolic profiling and discrimination of the two Swertia species, and can be used to verify the genuine origin of Zangyinchen.

Swertia mussotii Franch. and Swertia chirayita Buch.-Ham. have been commonly used under the same name 'Zangyinchen' for the treatment of liver and gallbladder diseases in traditional Tibetan medicine. Detailed characterization and comparison of the complete set of metabolites of these two species are critical for their objective identification and quality control. In this study, a rapid, simple and comprehensive H-1 NMR-based metabolomics method was first developed to differentiate the two species. A broad range of metabolites, including iridoid glycosides, xanthones, triterpenoids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, and amino acids, were identified. Statistical analysis showed evident differences between the two species, and the major markers responsible for the differences were screened. In addition, quantitative H-1 NMR method (qHNMR) was used for the target analysis of the discriminating metabolites. The results showed that S. mussotii had significantly higher contents of gentiopicrin, isoorientin, glucose, loganic acid, and choline, whereas S. chirayita exhibited higher levels of swertiamarin, oleanolic acid, valine, and fatty acids. These findings indicate that H-1 NMR-based metabolomics is a reliable and effective method for the metabolic profiling and discrimination of the two Swertia species, and can be used to verify the genuine origin of Zangyinchen. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

<br>• A 1H NMR-based method is first developed to differentiate two <b>Swertia</b> species. • The two <b>Swertia</b> species exhibit significant differences in their metabolic profiling. • Nine metabolic markers responsible for the differences are screened out. • A qHNMR method is used for quantitative analysis of the discriminating metabolites. • The proposed 1H NMR-based metabolomics method is rapid, reliable and effective.<br><b>Swertia mussotii</b> Franch. and <b>Swertia chirayita</b> Buch.-Ham. have been commonly used under the same name “Zangyinchen” for the treatment of liver and gallbladder diseases in traditional Tibetan medicine. Detailed characterization and comparison of the complete set of metabolites of these two species are critical for their objective identification and quality control. In this study, a rapid, simple and comprehensive 1H NMR-based metabolomics method was first developed to differentiate the two species. A broad range of metabolites, including iridoid glycosides, xanthones, triterpenoids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, and amino acids, were identified. Statistical analysis showed evident differences between the two species, and the major markers responsible for the differences were screened. In addition, quantitative 1H NMR method (qHNMR) was used for the target analysis of the discriminating metabolites. The results showed that <b>S. mussotii</b> had significantly higher contents of gentiopicrin, isoorientin, glucose, loganic acid, and choline, whereas <b>S. chirayita</b> exhibited higher levels of swertiamarin, oleanolic acid, valine, and fatty acids. These findings indicate that 1H NMR-based metabolomics is a reliable and effective method for the metabolic profiling and discrimination of the two <b>Swertia</b> species, and can be used to verify the genuine origin of Zangyinchen.

From the aerial parts of <i>Senecio dianthus</i>, four new eremophilenolides (<b>1</b>-<b>4</b>, resp.) and one new eremophilenolide alkaloid (<b>5</b>), of the relatively uncommon eremophilenoid-type sesquiterpenoid lactones, were isolated together with three known sesquiterpenoid lactones, 10<i>β</i>-hydroxyeremophil-7(11)-en-12,8<i>α</i>-olide (<b>6</b>), 8<i>β</i>,10<i>β</i>-dihydroxyeremophil-7(11)-en-12,8<i>α</i>-olide (<b>7</b>), and 10<i>α</i>-hydroxy-1-oxoeremophila-7(11),8(9)-dien-12,8-olide (<b>8</b>). On the basis of IR, MS, and NMR data, particularly 2D-NMR analyses, the structures of the new compounds were established as: 2<i>β</i>-(angeloyloxy)-10<i>β</i>-hydroxyeremophil-7(11)-en-12,8<i>α</i>-olide (<b>1</b>), 6<i>β</i>-(angeloyloxy)-10<i>β</i>-hydroxyeremophil-7(11)-en-12,8<i>α</i>-olide (<b>2</b>), 2<i>β</i>-(angeloyloxy)-8<i>β</i>,10<i>β</i>-dihydroxyeremophil-7(11)-en-12,8<i>α</i>-olide (<b>3</b>), 2<i>β</i>-(angeloyloxy)-8<i>α</i>-hydroxyeremophila-7(11),9(10)-dien-12,8<i>β</i>-olide (<b>4</b>), and 8<i>β</i>-amino-10<i>β</i>-hydroxyeremophil-7(11)-en-12,8<i>α</i>-olide (<b>5</b>). In addition, the relative configuration of <b>1</b> was corroborated by X-ray diffraction analysis.

Alzheimer disease (Alzheimer Disease, AD) is one of the most common type in senile dementia. Its main pathological features were that a large number of senile plaques gathered in brain extracellular and tangles fibrosis appeared in nerve cells. Currently, the pathogenesis of AD is still uncertain, and scale investigation and combined brain CT, MRI data were analyzed mainly for clinical diagnosis. Mitigation and improvement of the nervous system activity to interfere with the subsequent behavior of the patients are the main methods for treatment. In clinical no drug can really prevent and cure AD. From the view point of Tibetan medicine studies, Tibetan medicine RNSP has effect on improving memory and repairing the neurons in the brain. In this study, we combined the characteristics of AD pathology, pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment methods to explore the feasibility of Tibetan medicine RNSP for the treatment of AD to provide new ideas for the diagnosis and treatment of AD.

Zuotais regarded as the king of Tibetan medicine. However, the major starting material ofZuotais mercury, which is one very toxic heavy metal. This has aroused serious doubts on the biosafety ofZuotacontaining drugs. In this study, we quantified the Hg contents in fourZuotasamples, monitored the release of Hg in simulated gastric/intestinal juice and evaluated their cytotoxicity to Caco-2 cells. Our results showed that the Hg contents inZuotasamples were in the range of 566–676 mg/g. Fortunately, the release of Hg fromZuotasamples was very low in simulated gastric juice, and much lower in simulated intestinal juice. Direct contact ofZuotawith Caco-2 cells led to dose-dependent cytotoxicity, including activity loss and membrane leakage. The toxicity was closely related to apoptosis, because the caspase 3/7 levels of Caco-2 cells increased after the exposure toZuota. Interestingly,Zuotasamples inhibited the oxidative stress at low concentrations, but the toxicity could be relived by antioxidants. The possible toxicity should be attributed to the cellular uptake ofZuotaparticulates. Beyond the cytotoxicity, significant differences amongZuotasamples from different institutions were observed, suggesting that the preparation process ofZuotahad meaningful influence of its biosafety. The implications to the safety and clinical applications ofZuotaare discussed. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]