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This study presents an efficient strategy based on liquid-liquid extraction, high-speed counter-current chromatography, and preparative HPLC for the rapid enrichment, separation, and purification of four anthraquinones from Rheum tanguticum. A new solvent system composed of petroleum ether/ethyl acetate/water (4:2:1, v/v/v) was developed for the liquid-liquid extraction of the crude extract from R. tanguticum. As a result, emodin, aloe-emodin, physcion, and chrysophanol were greatly enriched in the organic layer. In addition, an efficient method was successfully established to separate and purify the above anthraquinones by high-speed counter-current chromatography and preparative HPLC. This study supplies a new alternative method for the rapid enrichment, separation, and purification of emodin, aloe-emodin, physcione, and chrysophanol.

In this paper, an efficient method was successfully established by the combination of macroporous resin (MR) and high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) for rapid enrichment and separation of aloe-emodin 8-O-β-D-glucoside, emodin 1-O-β-D-glucoside, emodin 8-O-β-D-glucoside and piceatannol 4'-O-β-D-(6″-O-gallate)-glucoside. Six kinds of macroporous resins were investigated in the first step and X-5 macroporous resin was selected for the enrichment of the target compounds. The recoveries of the target compounds reached 89.0, 85.9, 82.3 and 84.9% respectively after 40% ethanol elution. In the second step, the target compounds were separated by HSCCC with a two-phase solvent system composed of chloroform/ethyl acetate/methanol/water (8:1:6:5, v/v). The established method will be helpful for further characterization and utilization of Rheum tanguticum. The results demonstrate that MR coupled with HSCCC is a powerful technique for separation of bioactive compounds from natural products.

The separation of minor compounds, especially those with similar polarities from a complex sample, remains challenging. In the proposed study, an effective method based on medium-pressure liquid chromatography and recycling high-speed counter-current chromatography was developed for the enrichment and separation of three minor components from <i>Dracocephalum tanguticum</i>. The crude extract was directly introduced to medium-pressure liquid chromatography for the enrichment of the three minor components. Based on high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, the total content of these three compounds increased from 0.48% in the crude extract to 85.3% in the medium-pressure liquid chromatography fraction. In addition, high-speed counter-current chromatography was employed to separate the enriched compounds using the solvent system hexane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water (1.18:8.82:1.18:8.82, v/v/v/v). As a result, compound <b>3</b> and a mixture of compounds <b>1</b> and <b>2</b> were obtained. In order to improve the resolution of compounds <b>1</b> and <b>2</b> while saving separation time, a recycling and heart-cut mode was used. Finally, compounds <b>1</b> and <b>2</b> were obtained after five cycles. These compounds were identified as 3-phenylethyl β-d-glucopyranoside (<b>1</b>), tazettoside E (<b>2</b>), and cirsiliol-4′-glucoside (<b>3</b>). Compounds <b>1</b> and <b>2</b> were primarily separated from <i>D. tanguticum</i>. Moreover, the developed method provided a reference for the separation of minor components from the complex sample.

&lt;p&gt;A simple and sensitive method for the determination of free fatty acids (FFAs) using acridone€́9€́ethyl€́p€́toluenesulfonate (AETS) as a fluorescence derivatization reagent by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has been developed. Free fatty acid derivatives were separated on an Eclipse XDB€́C&lt;sub&gt;8&lt;/sub&gt; column with a good baseline resolution and detected with the fluorescence of which excitation and emission wavelengths of derivatives were set at &lt;sub&gt;ex&lt;/sub&gt;=404 and &lt;sub&gt;em&lt;/sub&gt;=440 nm, respectively. Identification of 19 fatty acid derivatives was carried out by online post€́column mass spectrometry with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) source under positive€́ion detection mode. Nineteen FFAs from the extract of &lt;i&gt;Lomatogonium rotatum&lt;/i&gt; are sensitively determined. The results indicate that the plant &lt;i&gt;Lomatogonium rotatum&lt;/i&gt; is enriched with an abundance of FFAs and FFAs of higher contents, which mainly focus on even carbon atoms, C&lt;sub&gt;14&lt;/sub&gt;, C&lt;sub&gt;16&lt;/sub&gt;, and C&lt;sub&gt;18&lt;/sub&gt;. The validation of the method including linearity, repeatability, and detection limits was examined. Most linear correlation coefficients for fatty acid derivatives are &gt;0.9989, and detection limits (at signal€́to€́noise of 3:1) are 12.3-43.7 fmol. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the peak areas and retention times for 19 FFAs standards are &lt;2.24% and 0.45%, respectively. The established method is rapid and reproducible for the separation determination of FFAs from the extract of &lt;i&gt;Lomatogonium rotatum&lt;/i&gt; with satisfactory results.&lt;/p&gt;

Barley seedlings are rich in flavones that can have positive effects on people with antihypoxia and antifatigue. Lutonarin and saponarin are two major flavonoid glycosides that have unique structures in barley seedlings. This study presents a new approach for the preparation of lutonarin and saponarin from barely seedlings by membrane separation technology and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography. Preparative conditions of these two flavonoid glycosides by membrane separation technology were studied using response surface methodology. Under the optimized conditions, the total contents of these two flavonoid glycosides amounts to 17.0%.

Introduction: Xanthones, the primary constituents of <i>Swertia mussotii</i>, are known to possess a variety of biological activities, including anti-depressant, anti-leukaemic, anti-tumour, anti-tubercular, choleretic, diuretic, anti-microbial, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, cardiotonic and hypoglycemic properties. However, high performance, environmentally friendly methods for isolating and purifying xanthones from <i>S. mussotii</i> are not currently available.<br>Objective: To develop a high performance and environmentally friendly method for the preparative separation of xanthones methylswertianin, swerchirin and decussatin from <i>S. mussotii</i> using high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC).<br>Methodology: A solvent system composed of <i>n</i>-hexane:ethyl acatate:methanol:water (5:5:10:4, v/v/v/v) was developed for the separation method. The upper phase was used as the stationary phase, and the lower phase was used as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min, a rotation speed of 800 rpm and a temperature of 25 °C.<br>Results: Using the described method, 8 mg of methylswertianin, 21 mg of swerchirin and 11 mg of decussatin with purities of over 98% could be isolated from a 150 mg crude sample. They were identified by ¹H-NMR and <sup>13</sup> C-NMR analysis.<br>Conclusion: Three xanthones in <i>Swertia mussotii</i> could be systematically isolated and purified using HSCCC. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Six compounds including two n-butyrophenone isomers and two stibene isomers were obtained from Rheum tanguticum Maxim. Two n-butyrophenone isomers with a separation factor of 1.14 were successfully separated by recycling high-speed counter-current chromatography after ten cycles. Two stibene isomers were successfully separated by preparative high-performance liquid chromatography. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that the purities of the compounds were all over 98%. These compounds were identified as lindleyin, isolindleyin, resveratrol-4'-O-(2″-O-galloyl)-glucopyranoside, resveratrol-4'-O-(6''-O-galloyl)-glucopyranoside, emodin 1-O-β-d-glucoside, and 3,5-dihydroxy-4'-methoxystilbene-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside. The results indicated that recycling high-speed counter-current chromatography and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography could be effective combination for the preparation of bioactive compounds from Rheum tanguticum Maxim.

Anthraquinone glycosides, such as chrysophanol 1-O-β-d-glucoside, chrysophanol 8-O-β-d-glucoside, and physion 8-O-β-d-glucoside, are the accepted important active components of Rheum tanguticum Maxim. ex Balf. due to their pharmacological properties: antifungal, antimicrobial, cytotoxic, and antioxidant activities. However, an effective method for the separation of the above-mentioned anthraquinone glycosides from this herb is not currently available. Especially, greater difficulty existed in the separation of the two isomers chrysophanol 1-O-β-d-glucoside and chrysophanol 8-O-β-d-glucoside. This study demonstrated an efficient strategy based on preparative high-performance liquid chromatography and high-speed countercurrent chromatography for the separation of the above-mentioned anthraquinone glycosides from Rheum tanguticum Maxim.ex Balf.

This study presents an efficient strategy for separation of three phenolic compounds with high molecular weight from the crude extract of Terminalia chebula Retz. by ultrasound-assisted extraction and high-speed counter-current chromatography. The ultrasound-assisted extraction conditions were optimized by response surface methodology and the results showed the target compounds could be well enriched under the optimized extraction conditions. Then the crude extract was directly separated by high-speed counter-current chromatography without any pretreatment using n-hexane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water (1:7:0.5:3, v/v/v/v) as the solvent system. In 180 min, 13 mg of A, 18 mg of B, and 9 mg of C were obtained from 200 mg of crude sample. Their structures were identified as Chebulagic acid (A, 954 Da), Chebulinic acid (B, 956 Da), and Ellagic acid (C) by (1) H NMR spectroscopy.

Oxidative stress has been suggested to play a causative role in the development of obesity-induced insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Given the antioxidant potency of previously reported xanthones isolated from <i>Swertia mussotii</i>. These natural products were further evaluated against other targets in diabetes, aldose reductase and α-glucosidase, in order to identify novel multitarget-directed antidiabetic agents. Among the 14 xanthones screened, 1,3,7,8-tetrahydroxyxanthone (<b>6</b>), 1,3,5,8-tetrahydroxyxanthone (<b>7</b>), and 2,3,6,8-tetrahydroxyxanthone-7C-(β-D-glucoside) (<b>12</b>) were confirmed as good antioxidants and α-glucosidase inhibitors. Xanthone <b>7</b> was also confirmed as a potent inhibitor of aldose reductase (ALR2). Xanthone <b>7</b> was the most active α-glucosidase and ALR2 inhibitor, with IC<sub>50</sub> values of 5.2±0.3 μM and 88.6±1.6 nM, respectively, while compound <b>12</b> was shown to be the most active antioxidant. Given the overall profile, xanthone <b>7</b> is considered to be the most promising multitarget antidiabetic agent, and may have potential for the treatment of both diabetes and diabetic complications.<br><b>Nature′s medicine cabinet:</b> Xanthones isolated from <i>Swertia mussotii</i> were evaluated as multitarget antidiabetic agents. 1,3,5,8-Tetrahydroxylxanthone was identified as a good antioxidant, and also exhibited potent inhibition of α-glucosidase and aldose reductase, proven targets in the treatment of diabetes.