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OBJECTIVE: To provide a reference for the standardization of Tibetan medicine.METHOD: Investigating the hospital preparations , Tibetan formulated products, and the literature recorded preparations in the Tibetan, Qinghai, Gansu, Sichuan and Yunnan Provinces. Moreover, the varieties, original bases and standard conditions of these preparations were analyzed. According to Chinese Pharmacopoeia, Tibetan medicine part of ministerial standard, Tibetan medicine standards and related monographs and literatures of Tibetan medicine. RESULT: About 502 various of herbs were used in 711 hospital preparations from 40 medical institutions, Tibetan formulated products from Tibetan pharmaceutical factories, and 439 literature recorded preparations. About 154 herbs were used in more than 10 preparations, while most of them were Tibetan endemic species. About 416 medicinal varieties have the original documented basis, including 287 botanicals, 78 animal medicines, 51 mineral medicines, involving a total of 94 families, 261 genus and 643 species of botanical origin (including species of the next grade), 35 families, 52 genera and 61 species of the animal origin (including species of the next grade). About 122 varieties of herbs were cross-used in the traditional Chinese medicine and Tibetan medicine, about 80% of Tibetan medicinal varieties are produced in the Tibetan Areas of Tibet Plateau. About 293 medicinal varieties were contained in the above standards. Most of the herb's standards only contains character, indentification, and examination, except for 8 varieties which were recorded in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2010) as Tibetan medicine. CONCLUSION: This study of quality standard of Tibetan medicine should have an emphasis on the general varieties, especially the study on the arrangement research and the efficacious material basis of the varieties and the original, as well as term standardization of the National Medicine.

The CO I gene sequences of Qianghuoyu, Pachytriton labiatus and Gehyra mutilata were achieved by PCR amplification and bi-directional sequencing. Furthermore, a pair of specific primers SJYW1 and SJYW2 in the non-conservative district were designed through sequence alignment. The PCR reaction condition was established by changing the annealing temperature and cycle numbers. The results showed that 350 bp DNA fragment was amplified from Qianghuoyu in PCR with annealed temperature at 54 °C and the cycle number was 25 cycles, whereas not any DNA fragment was amplified from P. labiatus and G. mutilata under the same reaction condition. This method is well-performed in the identification of Qianghuoyu for its excellent specificity and repeatability.

In order to efficiently control the quality of the Tibetan medicine Gentianae Szechenyii Flos, the quality standard was established in this study. The tests of water content, total ash and ethanol-soluble extractives of the crude drugs were carried out based on the methods recorded in appendix of Chinese Pharmacopeia (2010 edition, volume 1). The TLC method was established by using reference drug and gentiournoside A as reference substance, and a mixture of ethyl acetate-methanol-water-formic acid (7: 1.5: 1: 0.2) as the developing solvent system on silica gel G TLC plate. The content of gentiournoside A was assayed by HPLC on a Ultimate XB-C18 (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 μm) column, using methanol-water (0.02% phosphoric acid) (52:48) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL x min(-1). The column temperature is 25 degrees C and the detection wavelength is at 240 nm. As a result, gentiournoside A and the other constituents were separated and presented the same fluorescence light comparing with the reference substance on TLC detected under the UV light(366 nm). The methodology validation for the assay of gentiournoside A showed that it was in a good linear correlation in the range of 10.01-400.32 mg x L(-1) with the regression equation of Y = 1 539.5X - 33.339 (r = 0.999 7), and the average recovery was 99.68% (RSD 1.92%). The mass fractions of gentiournoside A, water content, ethanol-soluble extractives of 19 batches samples were varied in the ranges of 14.48-31.51 mg x g(-1), 11.25% -12.74% and 24.21% - 31.60%, respectively, and total ash was 4.64% - 6.12% detected from 10 batches samples. The recommended standards of quantitative indexes are that the mass fractions of gentiournoside A and extractives are not less than 15.0 mg x g(-1) (1.5%) and 21.0%, respectively; the water and total ash are not more than 13.0% and 6.0%, respectively.

Gentianae Urnulae Herba, dried whole herb of Gentiana urnula,is a commonly used Tibetan medicine. However, only the character identification is used as quality control standard officially at present. As a part of project for the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2015 edition), the quality standard of this species was established in this study. The tests of water content, total ash, acid-insoluble ash and ethanol-soluble extractives of the crude drugs were carried out following the methods recorded in appendix of Chinese Pharmacopeia (2010 edition, volume 1). The TLC identification method was established by using gentiournoside A as reference substance, and a mixture of ethyl acetate-methanol-water-formic acid(7:1. 5:1: 0. 2) as the developing solvent system on silica gel G TLC plate. The content of gentiournoside A was assayed by HPLC on an Agilent Zorbax SB-C18 (4.6 mm x 250 mm,5 μm) column, using acetonitrile-water (0.1% phosphoric acid) (26:74) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL x min(-1). The column temperature is at 30 degrees C and the detection wavelength is at 240 nm. As a result, gentiournoside A and the other constituents were separated and presented the same fluorescence light comparing with the reference substance on TLC detected under the UV light(366 nm). The methodology validation for the assay of gentiournoside A showed that it was in a good linear correlation in the range of 0.009 95-0.398 g x L(-1) with the regression equation of Y = 1 467.1X +41.407(r = 0.999 9), and the average recovery was 98. 3% (RSD 2.2%). The mass fractions of gentiournoside A, water content, ethanol-soluble extractives of 15 batches samples were varied in the ranges of 0.175% -1.83%, 8.60% - 9.93% and 29.2% - 35.2%, respectively. Total ash and acid-insoluble ash were 10.2% - 17.2% and 5.26% - 10.8% detected from 10 batches samples. The recommended standards of quantitative indexes are that the mass fractions of gentiournoside A and extractives are not less than 0.80% and 26.0%, respectively; the water, total ash and acid-insoluble ash are not more than 12.0%, 15.0% and 8.0%, respectively.