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<br>Display Omitted<br>• Mercuric chloride-human serum albumin adduct causes hormesis in N9 microglia cells. • Hormesis was implemented through ERK/MAPKs and JAK/STAT3 signaling pathways. • 15 ng/mL of Hg-HSA was close to a NOAEL for N9 cells and this dose may be beneficial. • Hg2+ could form stable coordination structures in both Asp249 site and Cys34 site of HSA.<br>Mercury chloride (HgCl2), a neurotoxicant that cannot penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Although when the BBB are got damaged by neurodegenerative disorders, the absorbed HgCl2, mainly in form of Hg (II)-serum albumin adduct (Hg-HSA) in human plasma, can penetrate BBB and affect central nervous system (CNS) cells. Current study planned to evaluate the effect of Hg-HSA on the physiological function of N9 microglial cells. At low dosage (15 ng/mL) of Hg-HAS, the observed outcomes was: promoted cell propagation, Nitric Oxide (NO) and intracellular Ca2+ levels enhancement, suppressed the release of TNF-α and IL-1β and inhibited cell proliferation. At high dosage (15 μg/mL) we observed decline in NO and intracellular Ca2+ levels, and increment in the release of TNF-α and IL-1β. These biphasic effects are similar to hormesis, and the hormesis, in this case, was executed through ERK/MAPKs and JAK/STAT3 signaling pathways. Study of quantum chemistry revealed that Hg2+ could form stable coordination structures in both Asp249 and Cys34 sites of HSA. Although five-coordination structure in Asp249 site is more stable than four-coordination structure in Cys34 site but four-coordination structure is formed easily in-<b>vivo</b> in consideration of binding-site position in spatial structure of HSA.
Fatty acids in Herpetospermum seed oil from supercritical CO2 extraction were analyzed by HPLC fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) with pre-column derivatization and GC-MS. After derivatizing 39 kinds of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids used 1-[ 2- ( p-toluenesulfonate ) ethyl]-2-phenylimidazole [ 4,5-f] 9,10-phenanthrene ( TSPP ) as pre-column derivatization reagent. All the fatty acid derivatives were separated with a good baseline resolution in conjunction with a gradient elution. The external standard method for the simultaneous quantitative determination of 39 fatty acids was developed and applied for the determination of the free fatty acid contents in Herpetospermum seed oil samples obtained from supercritical CO2 extraction coupled with orthogonal tests, ultrasound-assisted extraction and microwave-assisted reflux extraction. The mass percent of oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid and the ratio of unsaturated fatty acids and all fatty acids in 9 orthogonal test samples were contrasted. The results indicated that the mass percent of oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid in Herpetospermum seed oil are up to 34.65% ( 147. 14 mg/g), 22.85% (97.03 mg/g), 20. 86% ( 88. 56 rag/g), respectively, and ratio of unsaturated fatty acids and all fatty acids is 79%. Furthermore, by GC-MS method, the acid catalysis and alkaline catalysis of the methyl esterifying reaction were discussed for the analysis fatty acids in Herpetospermum seed oil, and the optimum GC-MS conditions were obtained. Simultaneously, the characteristics of HPLC and GC-MS methods were discussed about analyzing fatty acids.
Introduction: Xanthones, the primary constituents of <i>Swertia mussotii</i>, are known to possess a variety of biological activities, including anti-depressant, anti-leukaemic, anti-tumour, anti-tubercular, choleretic, diuretic, anti-microbial, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, cardiotonic and hypoglycemic properties. However, high performance, environmentally friendly methods for isolating and purifying xanthones from <i>S. mussotii</i> are not currently available.<br>Objective: To develop a high performance and environmentally friendly method for the preparative separation of xanthones methylswertianin, swerchirin and decussatin from <i>S. mussotii</i> using high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC).<br>Methodology: A solvent system composed of <i>n</i>-hexane:ethyl acatate:methanol:water (5:5:10:4, v/v/v/v) was developed for the separation method. The upper phase was used as the stationary phase, and the lower phase was used as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min, a rotation speed of 800 rpm and a temperature of 25 °C.<br>Results: Using the described method, 8 mg of methylswertianin, 21 mg of swerchirin and 11 mg of decussatin with purities of over 98% could be isolated from a 150 mg crude sample. They were identified by ¹H-NMR and <sup>13</sup> C-NMR analysis.<br>Conclusion: Three xanthones in <i>Swertia mussotii</i> could be systematically isolated and purified using HSCCC. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
In this paper, ab initio MP2 calculations have been performed to study the traditional and halogen-shared halogen bonds formed by a series of doped all-metal aromatic clusters MAl<sub>3</sub> <sup>−</sup> (M = Si, Ge, Sn, Pb) and YX (Y = HCC-, F<sub>3</sub>C-, HO-; X = Cl, Br, I). On the basis of our calculations, four halogen-bonded interaction modes, coded as MAl<sub>3</sub> <sup>−</sup>-XY-<i>1</i>, MAl<sub>3</sub> <sup>−</sup>-XY-2, MAl<sub>3</sub> <sup>−</sup>-XY-<i>3</i> and MAl<sub>3</sub> <sup>−</sup>-XY-<i>4</i>, have been recognized for complexes of MAl<sub>3</sub> <sup>−</sup>-XY. In particular, the configurations (configurations <i>2</i> and <i>3</i>) of the HCCX- and F<sub>3</sub>CX-containing complexes display different arrangements from those of HOX-containing complexes. Although the most positive electrostatic potentials on the surfaces of X atoms in monomers of YX (Y = HCC-, F<sub>3</sub>C-, HO-; X = Cl, Br, I) are similar, the interaction strength of HOX-containing complex is much stronger than those of HCCX- and F<sub>3</sub>CX-containing complexes. Based on the AIM, NBO and ELF analyses, the halogen bonds in the HCCCl/Br- and F<sub>3</sub>CCl/Br-containing complexes belong to traditional halogen bonds, while those in SiAl<sub>3</sub> <sup>−</sup>-BrCF<sub>3</sub>-<i>1</i>, GeAl<sub>3</sub> <sup>−</sup>-BrCF<sub>3</sub>-<i>1</i> and HCCI- and F<sub>3</sub>CI-containing complexes are halogen-shared halogen bonds. The halogen bonds in the HOX-containing complexes belong to covalent bonds or halogen-shared halogen bonds.