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Phytochemical studies on the whole herb of Sphaerophysa salsula has resulted in the discovery of one new 8-isopentenyl isoflavone derivative, named sphaerosin s2 (3-(8-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-3,4-dihydro-2H-furo[2,3-h]chromen-3-yl)-2,6-dimethoxyphenol) (1), along with four know 8-isopentenyl isoflavone derivatives (2-5). Compounds (2, 4 and 5) were isolated for the first time from this species. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of ESI-MS, UV, IR, 1D NMR and 2D NMR data.

BACKGROUND: In previous investigation, we have identified antioxidative effects of water-soluble ethanolic extracts (named as AKE) from Arenaria kansuensis and inferred that these extracts or their constituents may also have antihypoxic activity. A. kansuensis has been widely used in traditional Tibetan medicine for altitude sickness (AS) and has been known as the herb of anti-inflammatory and hypoxia resistance for a long time.PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate protective effects of AKE and its major constituents against hypoxia-induced lethality in mice and RSC96 cells. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Hypoxia-induced lethality in mice was investigated by 3 experimental animal models of hypoxia. Meanwhile, we established a RSC96 cell model of hypoxia which applied to screen and assess the anti-hypoxic activity of compounds isolated from A. kansuensis. RESULTS: Results indicated that AKE dose-dependently prolonged survival time of hypoxia induced lethality in mice compared to vehicle group and exhibited significantly anti-hypoxic effect. AKE also enhanced the number of red blood cells (RBC) and the concentration of hemoglobin (HB). 8 compounds were bio-guided separated and purified from AKE based on the animal model and cell model of hypoxia. Among which pyrocatechol (C16) and tricin 7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (C13) were confirmed to express better protective effects on cell damage induced by hypoxia, suggesting that these two compounds are major active constituents of AKE for anti-hypoxia. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that pyrocatechol and tricin 7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside could be therapeutic candidates for treatment of AS. It is the first time to find the major active constituents of AKE for anti-hypoxia. Meanwhile, a RSC96 cell model of hypoxia was established to screen anti-hypoxic activity of compounds for the first time.

BACKGROUND: Our previous studies on Asterothamnus centrali-asiaticus Novopokr. (ACN) and Arenaria kansuensis Maxim. (AKM) had led to the isolation of some phytochemical constituents and evaluation of anticonvulsant effect based on their extracts. ACN and AKM have been widely used in traditional Tibetan herbs for neuropsychiatric diseases and cardiopulmonary disorders.PURPOSE: The purpose is to investigate structure-activity relationships of flavonoids isolated from ACN and AKM, for binding to the benzodiazepine site (BZ-S) of γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor complex, and to search for anticonvulsant compounds without undesirable effects such as myorelaxation and sedation. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: The affinities of these flavonoids for the BZ-S of GABAA receptors were determined by [3H]flunitrazepam binding to mouse cerebellum membranes in vitro. And the anticonvulsant, myorelaxant and sedative effects were determined by pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizure and electrogenic seizure protection, rotarod test and locomotor activity test, respectively. RESULTS: Fifteen and thirteen flavonoids were isolated from ACN and AKM, respectively. Structure-activity relationships analysis indicated that 6-and/or 8-OMe flavones exhibited the most potent binding affinity to GABAA receptors. Furthermore, 2',4',5,7-tetrahydroxy-5',6-dimethoxyflavone (DMF, IC50 value of 0.10 μM), a flavone isolated from ACN, presented high anticonvulsant activity against chemical-induced seizures and electrogenic seizures, without myorelaxation and sedation. CONCLUSION: This study suggested that these flavones, especially DMF, are new BZ receptor ligands and prospective therapeutic candidates for seizures.

Traditional Tibetan medicine provides an abundant source of knowledge on human ailments and their treatment. As such, it is necessary to explore their active single compounds used to treat these ailments to discover lead compounds with good pharmacologic properties. In this present work, animal medicine, Osteon Myospalacem Baileyi extracts have been separated using a two-dimensional preparative chromatographic method to obtain single compounds with high purity as part of the following pharmacological research. Five high-purity cyclic dipeptides from chromatography work were studied for their dihydroorotate dehydrogenase inhibitory activity on recombinant human dihydroorotate dehydrogenase enzyme and compound Fr. 1-4 was found to contain satisfying inhibition activity. The molecular modeling study suggests that the active compound Fr. 1-4 may have a teriflunomide-like binding mode. Then, the energy decomposition study suggests that the hydrogen bond between Fr. 1-4 and Arg136 can improve the binding mode to indirectly increase the van der Waals binding energy. All the results above together come to the conclusion that the 2, 5-diketopiperazine structure group can interact with the polar residues well in the active pocket using electrostatic power. If some proper hydrophobic groups can be added to the sides of the 2, 5-diketopiperazine group, it is believed that better 2, 5-diketopiperazine dihydroorotate dehydrogenase inhibitors will be found in the future.

Dynamic microwave-assisted extraction (DMAE) technique was employed for the extraction of polysaccharides from Lycium ruthenicum (LRP). The extracting parameters were optimized by using three-variable-three-level Box-Behnken design and response surface methodology (RSM) based on the single-factor experiments. RSM analysis indicated good correspondence between experimental and predicted values. The optimum extraction parameters for the yield of polysaccharide were ratio of water to raw material 31.5 mL/g, extracting time 25.8 min and microwave power 544.0 W. Polysaccharide was analyzed by chemical methods and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR). The antioxidant activities of LRP were investigated including scavenging activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydrogen peroxide and free radicals of superoxide anion in vitro. The results of antioxidant activity exhibited LRP had the potential to be explored as novel natural antioxidant for using in functional foods or medicine.

A phytochemical investigation on Lagotis brevituba led to the isolation and characterisation of 11 phenolic compounds: p-hydroxy-benzoic acid 1, methyl 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate 2, vanillic acid 3, protocatechuic acid 4, caffeic acid 5, glucose ester of (E)-ferulic acid 6, p-coumaric acid 7, vanillin 8, diosmetin-7-O-β-d-glucoside 9, chrysoeriol 10 and luteolin 11. Their structures were elucidated using spectroscopic methods and by comparison with data in the literature. Compounds 1-6 were first obtained from the genus Lagotis, and compounds 1-9 were isolated from L. brevituba for the first time. Compound 4 and 11 displayed remarkable antioxidant activities against DPPH radical (IC50 = 5.60 ± 0.09, 27.5 ± 0.06 mg/L, respectively), which were superior to positive control rutin. And compound 11 was also superior to rutin in ABTS assay (IC50 = 2.04 ± 0.13 mg/L).

Traditional Tibetan medicine (TTM) has been valuable for the identification of new therapeutic leads. Nevertheless, reports about the chemical constituents of TTM are meager owing to the lack of suitable purification techniques. In this study, an off-line two-dimensional reversed-phase/hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (2D RP/HILIC) technique guided by on-line HPLC-DPPH has been established for the isolation of pure antioxidants from the extract of Dracocephalum heterophyllum . According to the chromatographic recognition outcome of the HPLC-DPPH system, the first-dimensional (1D) separation on the Megress C18 preparative column yielded 6 antioxidative fractions (61.4% recovery) from the ethyl acetate fraction (6.1 g). In the second-dimensional (2D) separation, a HILIC XAmide preparative column was employed. In total, 8 antioxidants were isolated from D. heterophyllum with a purity of >95%, which indicated the efficiency of the developed method to prepare antioxidative compounds with high purity from plant extracts. In addition, this method was highly efficient for the preparation of structural analogues of the antioxidative polyphenols and could be applied for the purification of structural analogues from other resources. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

The effective, energy-saving and green subcritical fluid extraction (SFE) technology was applied to obtain the oil from <i>Lycium ruthenicum</i> seeds (LRSO). The optimal conditions of extraction parameters were found using response surface methodology with Box-Behnken experimental design. The maximum extraction yield of 21.20% was achieved at raw material particle size of 0.60 mm, extraction pressure of 0.63 MPa, temperature of 50 °C and time of 48 min. Other traditional extraction technologies were comparatively used. The physicochemical property of LRSO was analysed and the chemical compositions indicated that they were rich in unsaturated fatty acid, β-carotene, tocopherols and total phenolics. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity of LRSO was evaluated by scavenging activity of three kinds of radicals (DPPH·, ·OH and O₂⁻·) and lipid peroxidation <i>in vitro</i>. And its results showed the oil had the potential to be a novel antioxidant agent for using in the field of food, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics.<br>Lycium ruthenicum seeds oil (LRSO) was obtained by subcritical fluid extraction (SFE), and the process of SFE was optimized using response surface methodology. LRSO was evaluated by determination of physicochemical property, lipophilic compositions and antioxidant activity. The study revealed the possibility of LRSO as a potential source of valuable product for commercial ventures (food, pharmaceuticals or cosmetics).

An orthogonally (80.3%) preparative two-dimensional hydrophilic interaction chromatography/reversed-phase liquid chromatography method has been established for the isolation and purification of flavonoids from Saxifraga tangutica. Initially, flavonoids were enriched by means of a middle-pressure chromatographic tower (containing middle chromatogram isolated gel). In the first dimension, a XION preparative column was used to separate the flavonoid fractions under the guidance of characteristic ultraviolet absorption spectra of flavonoids and nine flavonoid fractions were obtained. Then, the coeluted flavonoid fractions were selected for further purification via reversed-phase liquid chromatography with the parent ion peak of quercetin (303), kaempferol (287), or isorhamnetin (317). Several flavonoids could be separated from each hydrophilic interaction chromatography fraction; furthermore, flavonoids with poor resolution in one-dimensional liquid chromatography were isolated in two-dimensional liquid chromatography due to the orthogonality. In addition, this technique was valuable for trace flavonoids, which were concentrated in the first stage and separated in the second stage. In total, 18 flavonoids with either quercetin, kaempferol, or isorhamnetin parent nuclei were targetedly obtained, and 15 flavonoids were obtained for the first time from S. tangutica. These results established that the off-line two-dimensional hydrophilic interaction chromatography/reversed-phase liquid chromatography technique was efficient for the isolation of flavonoids from Saxifraga tangutica.

Traditional Tibetan medicine is important for discovery of drug precursors. However, information about the chemical composition of traditional Tibetan medicine is very limited due to the lack of appropriate chromatographic purification methods. In the present work, A. kansuensis was taken as an example and a novel two-dimensional reversed-phase/hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography(HILIC) method based on on-line HPLC-DPPH bioactivity-guided assay was developed for the purification of analogue antioxidant compounds with high purity from the extract of A. kansuensis. Based on the separation results of many different chromatographic stationary phases, the first-dimensional (1D) preparation was carried on a RP-C18HCE prep column, and 2 antioxidant fractions were obtained from the 800mg crude sample with a recovery of 56.7%. A HILIC-XAmide prep column was selected for the second-dimensional (2D) preparation. Finally, a novel antioxidant β-carboline Alkaloids (Glusodichotomine AK) and 4 known compounds (Tricin, Homoeriodictyol, Luteolin, Glucodichotomine B) were purified from A. kansuensis. The purity of the compounds isolated from the crude extract was >98%, which indicated that the method built in this work was efficient to manufacture single analogue antioxidant compounds of high purity from the extract of A. kansuensis. Additionally, this method showed great potential in the preparation of analogue structure antioxidant compounds and can serve as a good example for the purification of analogue structure antioxidant carboline alkaloids and flavonoids from other plant materials.