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Background: Swertia chirayita, has been commonly used under the name "Zang-yin-chen" for the treatment of liver infections, inflammation, abdominal pain, and bacterial infection in traditional Tibetan medicine. However, the bioactive components with anti-inflammatory activities and underlying mechanisms remain poorly evaluated.Study Design/methods: Repeated column chromatography yielded two main xanthones from petroleum ether (PE) and ethyl acetate fractions of whole plants of S. chirayita, and their structures were determined as bellidifolin (1) and swerchirin (2) on the basis of spectroscopic data and literature analysis. The anti-inflammatory activities and mechanisms of anti-inflammation of these two isolated xanthones were determined via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blot in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 murine macrophages in vitro.Results: Anti-inflammation assay demonstrated that 1 and 2 inhibit the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6) and TNF-α in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Xanthone 1 also potently inhibited the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) by suppressing the protein expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Western blot showed that the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and p38 MAPKs were remarkably attenuated by 1 in a concentration-dependent manner. Particularly, Compound 1 suppressed the phosphorylation of the inhibitor κB kinase-β (IKK-β), Akt, and p65 subunit of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB).Conclusion: The potent suppressive effects of 1 from S. chirayita on inflammatory mediators by blocking the expression of COX-2 and phosphorylation of Akt, IKK-β, MAPK and NF-κB, activation in LPS-stimulated macrophages suggest that 1 can be a preventive therapeutic candidate for the management of inflammatory-mediated immune disorders.

• TCM therapies showed potential positive effect for alleviating fatigue symptoms. • Whether TCM could improve the QOL of patients is still inconclusive. • We could not draw a firm conclusion about the safety of TCM on CFS.<br>Background: There is no curative treatment for chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is widely used in the treatment of CFS in China.<br>Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of TCM for CFS.<br>Methods: The protocol of this review is registered at PROSPERO. We searched six main databases for randomized clinical trials (RCTs) on TCM for CFS from their inception to September 2013. The Cochrane risk of bias tool was used to assess the methodological quality. We used RevMan 5.1 to synthesize the results.<br>Results: 23 RCTs involving 1776 participants were identified. The risk of bias of the included studies was high. The types of TCM interventions varied, including Chinese herbal medicine, acupuncture, qigong, moxibustion, and acupoint application. The results of meta-analyses and several individual studies showed that TCM alone or in combination with other interventions significantly alleviated fatigue symptoms as measured by Chalder's fatigue scale, fatigue severity scale, fatigue assessment instrument by Joseph E. Schwartz, Bell's fatigue scale, and guiding principle of clinical research on new drugs of TCM for fatigue symptom. There was no enough evidence that TCM could improve the quality of life for CFS patients. The included studies did not report serious adverse events.<br>Conclusions: TCM appears to be effective to alleviate the fatigue symptom for people with CFS. However, due to the high risk of bias of the included studies, larger, well-designed studies are needed to confirm the potential benefit in the future.