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<p>This article examines an inscription on a maṇi wall in the village of Ura in southeastern Bhutan that the author noticed during a stay in the area in 2002. The inscription records that the wall was constructed during the time of Mingyur Tenpa (mi 'gyur brtan pa), who ruled areas of eastern Bhutan before taking the position of Desi (sde srid) of Bhutan. The inscription gives the names of other participants in the construction, none of whom were able to be identified by the author. Ardussi gives an overview of the historical situation of Bhutan in the 17th century, from which he draws the conclusion that the wall must have been built sometime between 1667-1680, when Mingyur Tenpa was Desi of Bhutan. The article includes two photographs, one of the inscription stone and one of the wall, and the text of the inscription along with a translation. (Ben Deitle 2006-02-06)</p>

<p>This article explores the term <em>sandhābhāṣa</em> as used in the <em>Hevajra-tantra</em> by examining Indian and Tibetan commentaries that apply various principles of interpration of the tantra and the language used in it. Attention is given to texts on interpretation (bshad thabs). Terms discussed in the article include the Tibetan terms <em>bshad thabs</em>, <em>dgongs skad</em>, <em>dgongs bshad</em>, and the Sanskrit terms <em>sandhā-bhāṣa</em> and <em>sandhyā-bhāṣitaṃ</em>. (Ben Deitle 2006-01-25)</p>

<p>Summary of the views of dol po pa shes rab rgyal mtshan on Madhyamaka according to his ri chos nges don rgya mtsho. The article briefly discusses dol po pa's interpretation of definitive and interpretive teachings of the Buddha, the categories of rang stong (self-emptiness) and gzhan stong (other-emptiness), the two truths (satyas), the status of essence (garbha) or the buddha nature, and shows some differences between the views of dol po pa and other gzhan stong pas (followers of other-emptiness views)(Komarovski, Yaroslav 2004-04-26)</p>

<p>This article examines the Tibetan term <em>dgos 'brel</em> which is used to describe the interpretation of a text as a whole with regard to its uses and topics. Broido focuses on <em>dgos 'brel</em> within tantric literature and notes the differences between <em>dgos 'brel</em> and a similar term, <em>bshad thabs</em>. At the end of the article, two short pieces on <em>dgos 'brel</em> are reproduced, one in Tibetan and the other in Sanskrit and Tibetan. (Ben Deitle 2006-01-25)</p>

<p>In this first part of a two-part paper, Broido tries to understand Padma Karpo's (pad ma dkar po) explanation of tantra in general as ground, path and goal (gzhi, lam, 'bras bu) found within his treatise on Vajrayāna entitled <em>Jo bo nāropa'i khyad chos bsre 'pho'i gzhung 'grel rdo rje 'chang gi dgongs pa gsal bar byed pa</em>. Broido explores the interpretation of these concepts by several other commentators before going into an extended analysis of Padma Karpo's comments. The Tibetan text of Padma Karpo's summary of ground, path, and goal are given in an appendix. (Ben Deitle 2006-01-27)</p>

<p>The article looks at Pema Karpo's (pad ma dkar po) <em>Zhungdrel</em> (gzhung 'grel) in an attempt to retreat to a more fundamental and technical understanding of the term ngöpö neluk (dgnos po'i gnas lugs). (Mark Premo-Hopkins 2004-04-09)</p>