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Five days of integrative body-mind training (IBMT) improves attention and self-regulation in comparison with the same amount of relaxation training. This paper explores the underlying mechanisms of this finding. We measured the physiological and brain changes at rest before, during, and after 5 days of IBMT and relaxation training. During and after training, the IBMT group showed significantly better physiological reactions in heart rate, respiratory amplitude and rate, and skin conductance response (SCR) than the relaxation control. Differences in heart rate variability (HRV) and EEG power suggested greater involvement of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in the IBMT group during and after training. Imaging data demonstrated stronger subgenual and adjacent ventral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) activity in the IBMT group. Frontal midline ACC theta was correlated with highfrequency HRV, suggesting control by the ACC over parasympathetic activity. These results indicate that after 5 days of training, the IBMT group shows better regulation of the ANS by a ventral midfrontal brain system than does the relaxation group. This changed state probably reflects training in the coordination of body and mind given in the IBMT but not in the control group. These results could be useful in the design of further specific interventions.
The present work is to study the chemical constituents from petroleum ether fraction of Tibetan medicine Swertia chirayita by column chromatography and recrystallization. The structures were identified by physical and chemical properties and spectral data as swerchirin (1), decussatin (2), 1,8-dihydroxy-3,5,7-trimethoxyxanthone (3), 1-hydroxy-3,5,7,8-tetramethoxyxanthone (4), bellidifolin (5), 1-hydroxy-3, 7-dimethoxyxanthone (6), methylswertianin (7), 1-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyxanthone (8), erythrodiol (9), oleanolic acid (10), gnetiolactone (11), scopoletin (12), sinapaldehyde (13), syringaldehyde (14), and β-sitosterol (15). Compounds 3, 4, 9, 11-14 were isolated from S. chirayita for the first time. Compounds 9 and 12 were firstly isolated from the genus Swertia. The cytotoxic activities of compounds 1, 2, 5, 7 and 8 against human pancreatic cancer cell lines SW1990 and BxPC-3,and the protective effects of these compounds against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress in human endothelium-derived EA.hy926 were investigated in vitro. The results showed no obvious effect at the high concentration of 50 μmol•L⁻¹.
To study the effect of Tibetan medicine Zuotai on the activity, protein and mRNA expression of CYP1A2 and NAT2, three different doses (1.2, 3.8 and 12 mg x kg(-1)) of Zuotai were administrated orally to rats once a day or once daily for twelve days, separately. Rats were administrated orally caffeine (CF) on the second day after Zuotai administration, and the urine concentration of CF metabolite 5-acetylamino-6-formylamino-3-methyl-uracil (AFMU), 1-methyluric acid (1U), 1-methylxanthine (1X), 1, 7-dimethylxanthine (17U) at 5 h after study drug administration was determined by RP-HPLC. The activity of CYP1A2 and NAT2 was evaluated by the ratio of metabolites (AFMU+1X+1U)/17U and the ratio of AFMU/(AFMU+1X+1U), respectively. The protein and mRNA expression of CYP1A2 and NAT2 were determined by ELISA and RT-PCR method, respectively. After single administration of Zuotai 3.8 mg x kg(-1) and repeated administration of Zuotai 3.8 and 12 mg x kg(-1), the activity of CYP1A2 and NAT2 decreased significantly compared with control group and there was no significant difference between other dose group and control group. The protein expression of CYP1A2 was significant lower than that in control group after repeated administration of Zuotai 12 mg x kg(-1), and the mRNA expression of CYP1A2 decreased significantly compared with that of control group after single administration of Zuotai 3.8 mg x kg(-1) and repeated admistration of Zuotai 12 mg x kg(-1), separately. The protein expression of NAT2 decreased significantly compared with that of control group after single and repeated administration of Zuotai 3.8 mg x kg(-1), respectively, and the mRNA expression of CYP1A2 decreased significantly compared with control group after single administration of Zuotai 3.8 mg x kg(-1). This study found that Tibetan medicine Zuotai had significant effect on the activity, protein and mRNA expression of CYP1A2 and NAT2.
Using diffusion tensor imaging, several recent studies have shown that training results in changes in white matter efficiency as measured by fractional anisotropy (FA). In our work, we found that a form of mindfulness meditation, integrative body–mind training (IBMT), improved FA in areas surrounding the anterior cingulate cortex after 4-wk training more than controls given relaxation training. Reductions in radial diffusivity (RD) have been interpreted as improved myelin but reductions in axial diffusivity (AD) involve other mechanisms, such as axonal density. We now report that after 4-wk training with IBMT, both RD and AD decrease accompanied by increased FA, indicating improved efficiency of white matter involves increased myelin as well as other axonal changes. However, 2-wk IBMT reduced AD, but not RD or FA, and improved moods. Our results demonstrate the time-course of white matter neuroplasticity in short-term meditation. This dynamic pattern of white matter change involving the anterior cingulate cortex, a part of the brain network related to self-regulation, could provide a means for intervention to improve or prevent mental disorders.