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Various pranayama techniques are known to produce different physiological effects. We evaluated the effect of three-different pranayama techniques on cerebrovascular hemodynamics. Eighteen healthy volunteers with the mean ± standard deviation age of 23.78 ± 2.96 years were performed three-different pranayama techniques: (1) Bhramari, (2) Kapalbhati and (3) Bahir-Kumbhaka in three-different orders. Continuous transcranial Doppler (TCD) monitoring was performed before, during and after the pranayama techniques. TCD parameters such as peak systolic velocity, end diastolic velocity (EDV), mean flow velocity (MFV) and pulsatility index (PI) of right middle cerebral artery were recorded. Practice of Kapalbhati showed significant reductions in EDV and MFV with significant increase in PI while, Bahir-Kumbhaka showed significant increase in EDV and MFV with significant reduction in PI. However, no such significant changes were observed in Bhramari pranayama. Various types of pranayama techniques produce different cerebrovascular hemodynamic changes in healthy volunteers.

Background:Pranayama techniques are known to produce variable physiological effects on the body. We evaluated the effect of the two commonly practiced Pranayama techniques on cerebral hemodynamics. Materials and Methods: Fifteen healthy male volunteers, trained in Yoga and Pranayama, were included in the study. Mean age was 24 years (range 22–32 years). Study participants performed 2 Pranayamas in 2 different orders. Order 1 (n = 7) performed Bhastrika (bellows breaths) followed by Kumbhaka (breath retention) while order 2 (n = 8) performed Kumbhaka followed by Bhastrika. Both breathing techniques were performed for 1 min each. Continuous transcranial Doppler (TCD) monitoring was performed during the breathing techniques. TCD parameters that were recorded included peak systolic velocity (PSV), end-diastolic velocity (EDV), mean flow velocity (MFV), and pulsatility index (PI) of the right middle cerebral artery at baseline, 15, 30, 45, and 60 s. Results: Significant reductions in EDV (3.67 ± 6.48; P < 0.001) and MFV (22.00 ± 7.30; P < 0.001) with a significant increase in PI (2.43 ± 0.76; P < 0.001) were observed during Bhastrika. On the contrary, a significant increase in PSV (65.27 ± 13.75; P < 0.001), EDV (28.67 ± 12.03; P < 0.001), and MFV (43.67 ± 12.85; P < 0.001) with a significant reduction in PI (0.89 ± 0.28; P < 0.01) was observed only during Kumbhaka. Conclusion: Bhastrika and Kumbhaka practices of Pranayama produce considerable and opposing effects on cerebral hemodynamic parameters. Our findings may play a potential role in designing the Pranayama techniques according to patients’ requirements.

Cardiovascular functions are controlled by neural factors, temperature, hormones, etc., Of these, neural factors primarily concern the autonomic nervous system, which plays a major role in maintaining and regulating cardiac functions, e.g., blood pressure and heart rate. Prāṇāyāma is one of the most important yogic practices. There are various review articles on Yoga and its effects but, though Prāṇāyāma is a part of yoga, there is lack of review articles. To the best of our knowledge there is no known review article on effect of various Prāṇāyāma on cardiovascular and autonomic variables. To provide a general overview about the effect of various prāṇāyāma (breathing techniques) on cardiovascular and autonomic variables. A narrative review was performed based on the available scientific literature. An electronic data search was performed in Medline/PubMed database to review relevant articles, using keywords such as "Prāṇāyāma, Yogic breathing techniques, Unilateral nostril breathing, Alternate nostril breathing, Kapalbhati, Bhastrika and Bhramari Pranayama". All the relevant articles published from 1988 to 06-04-2016 were included in this review. Slow type of yogic breathing technique was reported to produce beneficial effect on cardiovascular and autonomic variables while fast breathing techniques do not produce such effects. There is lack of consistency in the results of specific nostril yogic breathing techniques and the mechanisms behind the effects of various prāṇāyāma. This review suggests that different types of Prāṇāyāma techniques produce different effects and the mechanisms behind these effects are not fully understood.

BACKGROUND: Emotion regulation is often a challenge for the college students. Yoga practice has been shown to reduce stress and improve mindfulness that is related to emotion regulation. Mastering emotions technique (MEMT) is one of the yoga-based meditation techniques that are designed to control emotions among practitioners. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no known study reporting its scientific evidence-based effects on emotion and its related variables. Thus, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of MEMT on emotion regulation, self-compassion, and mindfulness in college students.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-two subjects with the age varied from 18 to 25 years were recruited from a residential college. All the subjects underwent MEMT for the duration of 45 min a day for a period of 2 weeks. Assessments such as Emotional Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ), The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), Self-Compassion Scale (SCS), and Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) were taken before and after the intervention. RESULTS: Results of this study showed a significant increase in the scores of cognitive reappraisal, positive affect, self-compassion, and MAAS along with a significant reduction in the scores of negative affect, and expressive suppression after the practice of MEMT compared to its respective baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Results of this study suggest that practice of MEMT is effective in improving emotion regulation, positive affects, self-compassion, and mindfulness while in reducing negative affects among college students.