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Body awareness has been proposed as one of the major mechanisms of mindfulness interventions, and it has been shown that chronic pain and depression are associated with decreased levels of body awareness. We investigated the effect of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) on body awareness in patients with chronic pain and comorbid active depression compared to treatment as usual (TAU; N = 31). Body awareness was measured by a subset of the Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA) scales deemed most relevant for the population. These included: Noticing, Not-Distracting, Attention Regulation, Emotional Awareness, and Self-Regulation. In addition, pain catastrophizing was measured by the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS). These scales had adequate to high internal consistency in the current sample. Depression severity was measured by the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology—Clinician rated (QIDS-C16). Increases in the MBCT group were significantly greater than in the TAU group on the “Self-Regulation” and “Not Distracting” scales. Furthermore, the positive effect of MBCT on depression severity was mediated by “Not Distracting.” These findings provide preliminary evidence that a mindfulness-based intervention may increase facets of body awareness as assessed with the MAIA in a population of pain patients with depression. Furthermore, they are consistent with a long hypothesized mechanism for mindfulness and emphasize the clinical relevance of body awareness.

Body awareness has been proposed as one of the major mechanisms of mindfulness interventions, and it has been shown that chronic pain and depression are associated with decreased levels of body awareness. We investigated the effect of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) on body awareness in patients with chronic pain and comorbid active depression compared to treatment as usual (TAU; N = 31). Body awareness was measured by a subset of the Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA) scales deemed most relevant for the population. These included: Noticing, Not-Distracting, Attention Regulation, Emotional Awareness, and Self-Regulation. In addition, pain catastrophizing was measured by the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS). These scales had adequate to high internal consistency in the current sample. Depression severity was measured by the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology—Clinician rated (QIDS-C16). Increases in the MBCT group were significantly greater than in the TAU group on the “Self-Regulation” and “Not Distracting” scales. Furthermore, the positive effect of MBCT on depression severity was mediated by “Not Distracting.” These findings provide preliminary evidence that a mindfulness-based intervention may increase facets of body awareness as assessed with the MAIA in a population of pain patients with depression. Furthermore, they are consistent with a long hypothesized mechanism for mindfulness and emphasize the clinical relevance of body awareness.

Body awareness has been proposed as one of the major mechanisms of mindfulness interventions, and it has been shown that chronic pain and depression are associated with decreased levels of body awareness. We investigated the effect of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) on body awareness in patients with chronic pain and comorbid active depression compared to treatment as usual (TAU; N = 31). Body awareness was measured by a subset of the Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA) scales deemed most relevant for the population. These included: Noticing, Not-Distracting, Attention Regulation, Emotional Awareness, and Self-Regulation. In addition, pain catastrophizing was measured by the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS). These scales had adequate to high internal consistency in the current sample. Depression severity was measured by the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology—Clinician rated (QIDS-C16). Increases in the MBCT group were significantly greater than in the TAU group on the “Self-Regulation” and “Not Distracting” scales. Furthermore, the positive effect of MBCT on depression severity was mediated by “Not Distracting.” These findings provide preliminary evidence that a mindfulness-based intervention may increase facets of body awareness as assessed with the MAIA in a population of pain patients with depression. Furthermore, they are consistent with a long hypothesized mechanism for mindfulness and emphasize the clinical relevance of body awareness.

IntroductionThe aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) on suicidal ideation in an open-label randomised controlled trial of patients with residual depressive symptoms. Furthermore, this study aimed at examining whether an effect of MBCT on suicidal ideation was dependent on a reduction in depression severity, worry and rumination, or an increase in mindfulness. Methods One hundred and thirty participants were randomised to a treatment arm (treatment as usual plus MBCT) or a wait list arm. Change in depression, change in worry, change in rumination and change in mindfulness were entered as covariates in a repeated measures ANOVA in order to assess to what degree MBCT-induced changes in suicidal ideation were independent from changes in these parameters. Results There was a significant group × time (pre vs. post) interaction on suicidal ideation indicating a significant reduction of suicidal ideation in the MBCT group, but not in the control group. The interaction remained significant after addition of the above covariates. Change in worry was the only covariate associated with change in suicidal ideation, causing a moderate reduction in the interaction effect size. Conclusions The results suggest that MBCT may affect suicidal ideation in patients with residual depressive symptoms and that this effect may be mediated, in part, by participants’ enhanced capacity to distance themselves from worrying thoughts.

BACKGROUND: There appears to be consensus that patients with only one or two prior depressive episodes do not benefit from treatment with mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT).AIMS: To investigate whether the effect of MBCT on residual depressive symptoms is contingent on the number of previous depressive episodes (trial number NTR1084). METHOD: Currently non-depressed adults with residual depressive symptoms and a history of depression (≤2 prior episodes: n = 71; ≥3 episodes: n = 59) were randomised to MBCT (n = 64) or a waiting list (control: n = 66) in an open-label, randomised controlled trial. The main outcome measured was the reduction in residual depressive symptoms (Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, HRSD-17). RESULTS: Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy was superior to the control condition across subgroups (β = -0.56, P<0.001). The interaction between treatment and subgroup was not significant (β = 0.45, P = 0.16). CONCLUSIONS: Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy reduces residual depressive symptoms irrespective of the number of previous episodes of major depression.

Objective: To examine whether mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) increases momentary positive emotions and the ability to make use of natural rewards in daily life. Method: Adults with a life-time history of depression and current residual depressive symptoms (mean age = 43.9 years, SD = 9.6; 75% female; all Caucasian) were randomized to MBCT (n = 64) or waitlist control (CONTROL; n = 66) in a parallel, open-label, randomized controlled trial. The Experience Sampling Method was used to measure momentary positive emotions as well as appraisal of pleasant activities in daily life during 6 days before and after the intervention. Residual depressive symptoms were measured using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (Hamilton, 1960). Results: MBCT compared to CONTROL was associated with significant increases in appraisals of positive emotion (b* = .39) and activity pleasantness (b* = .22) as well as enhanced ability to boost momentary positive emotions by engaging in pleasant activities (b* = .08; all ps < .005). Associations remained significant when corrected for reductions in depressive symptoms or for reductions in negative emotion, rumination, and worry. In the MBCT condition, increases in positive emotion variables were associated with reduction of residual depressive symptoms (all ps < .05). Conclusions: MBCT is associated with increased experience of momentary positive emotions as well as greater appreciation of, and enhanced responsiveness to, pleasant daily-life activities. These changes were unlikely to be pure epiphenomena of decreased depression and, given the role of positive emotions in resilience against depression, may contribute to the protective effects of MBCT against depressive relapse.

OBJECTIVE: To examine whether mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) increases momentary positive emotions and the ability to make use of natural rewards in daily life.METHOD: Adults with a life-time history of depression and current residual depressive symptoms (mean age = 43.9 years, SD = 9.6; 75% female; all Caucasian) were randomized to MBCT (n = 64) or waitlist control (CONTROL; n = 66) in a parallel, open-label, randomized controlled trial. The Experience Sampling Method was used to measure momentary positive emotions as well as appraisal of pleasant activities in daily life during 6 days before and after the intervention. Residual depressive symptoms were measured using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (Hamilton, 1960). RESULTS: MBCT compared to CONTROL was associated with significant increases in appraisals of positive emotion (b* = .39) and activity pleasantness (b* = .22) as well as enhanced ability to boost momentary positive emotions by engaging in pleasant activities (b* = .08; all ps < .005). Associations remained significant when corrected for reductions in depressive symptoms or for reductions in negative emotion, rumination, and worry. In the MBCT condition, increases in positive emotion variables were associated with reduction of residual depressive symptoms (all ps < .05). CONCLUSIONS: MBCT is associated with increased experience of momentary positive emotions as well as greater appreciation of, and enhanced responsiveness to, pleasant daily-life activities. These changes were unlikely to be pure epiphenomena of decreased depression and, given the role of positive emotions in resilience against depression, may contribute to the protective effects of MBCT against depressive relapse.

Recent theory suggests that positive psychological processes integral to health may be energized through the self-reinforcing dynamics of an upward spiral to counter emotion dysregulation.The present study examined positive emotion–cognition interactions among individuals in partial remission from depression who had been randomly assigned to treatment with mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT; n = 64) or a waitlist control condition (n = 66). We hypothesized that MBCT stimulates upward spirals by increasing positive affect and positive cognition. Experience sampling assessed changes in affect and cognition during 6 days before and after treatment, which were analyzed with a series of multilevel and autoregressive latent trajectory models. Findings suggest that MBCT was associated with significant increases in trait positive affect and momentary positive cognition, which were preserved through autoregressive and cross-lagged effects driven by global emotional tone. Findings suggest that daily positive affect and cognition are maintained by an upward spiral that might be promoted by mindfulness training. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)

ContextParanoia embodies altered representation of the social environment, fuelling altered feelings of social acceptance leading to further mistrust. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) may relieve paranoia and reduce its impact on social acceptance. Objective To determine whether MBCT alters momentary feeling of paranoia and social acceptance in daily life. Design Randomized controlled trial of daily-life repeated measures (up to 120 per participant) before and after allocation to MBCT or waiting list control. Participants Volunteer sample of 130 eligible men and women with residual affective dysregulation after at least one episode of major depressive disorder. Interventions Eight weeks of MBCT in groups of 10–15 participants in addition to participants' usual treatment. Outcome Measures Daily-life ratings of paranoia and social acceptance. This manuscript concerns additional analyses of the original trial; hypotheses were developed after data collection (focus initially on depressive symptoms) but before data analysis. Results Sixty-six participants were assigned to the waiting list control group and 64 to the MBCT intervention group, of whom 66 and 61 respectively were included in the per-protocol analyses. Intention-to-treat analyses revealed a significant group by time interaction in the model of momentary paranoia (b = −.18, p<0.001, d = −0.35) and social acceptance (b = .26, p<0.001, d = 0.41). Paranoia levels in the intervention group were significantly reduced (b = −.11, p<0.001) and feelings of social acceptance significantly increased (b = .18, p<0.001), whereas in the Control condition a significant increase in paranoia (b = .07, p = 0.008) and a decrease in social acceptance was apparent (b = −.09, p = 0.013). The detrimental effect of paranoia on social acceptance was significantly reduced in the MBCT, but not the control group (group by time interaction: b = .12, p = 0.022). Conclusions MBCT confers a substantial benefit on subclinical paranoia and may interrupt the social processes that maintain and foster paranoia in individuals with residual affective dysregulation.

ContextParanoia embodies altered representation of the social environment, fuelling altered feelings of social acceptance leading to further mistrust. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) may relieve paranoia and reduce its impact on social acceptance. Objective To determine whether MBCT alters momentary feeling of paranoia and social acceptance in daily life. Design Randomized controlled trial of daily-life repeated measures (up to 120 per participant) before and after allocation to MBCT or waiting list control. Participants Volunteer sample of 130 eligible men and women with residual affective dysregulation after at least one episode of major depressive disorder. Interventions Eight weeks of MBCT in groups of 10–15 participants in addition to participants' usual treatment. Outcome Measures Daily-life ratings of paranoia and social acceptance. This manuscript concerns additional analyses of the original trial; hypotheses were developed after data collection (focus initially on depressive symptoms) but before data analysis. Results Sixty-six participants were assigned to the waiting list control group and 64 to the MBCT intervention group, of whom 66 and 61 respectively were included in the per-protocol analyses. Intention-to-treat analyses revealed a significant group by time interaction in the model of momentary paranoia (b = −.18, p<0.001, d = −0.35) and social acceptance (b = .26, p<0.001, d = 0.41). Paranoia levels in the intervention group were significantly reduced (b = −.11, p<0.001) and feelings of social acceptance significantly increased (b = .18, p<0.001), whereas in the Control condition a significant increase in paranoia (b = .07, p = 0.008) and a decrease in social acceptance was apparent (b = −.09, p = 0.013). The detrimental effect of paranoia on social acceptance was significantly reduced in the MBCT, but not the control group (group by time interaction: b = .12, p = 0.022). Conclusions MBCT confers a substantial benefit on subclinical paranoia and may interrupt the social processes that maintain and foster paranoia in individuals with residual affective dysregulation.

Objective: Chronic pain is a disabling illness, often comorbid with depression. We performed a randomized controlled pilot study on mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) targeting depression in a chronic pain population.Method: Participants with chronic pain lasting ≥ 3 months; DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD), dysthymic disorder, or depressive disorder not otherwise specified; and a 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Clinician Rated (QIDS-C16) score ≥ 6 were randomly assigned to MBCT (n = 26) or waitlist (n = 14). We adapted the original MBCT intervention for depression relapse prevention by modifying the psychoeducation and cognitive-behavioral therapy elements to an actively depressed chronic pain population. We analyzed an intent-to-treat (ITT) and a per-protocol sample; the per-protocol sample included participants in the MBCT group who completed at least 4 of 8 sessions. Changes in scores on the QIDS-C16 and 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Sale (HDRS17) were the primary outcome measures. Pain, quality of life, and anxiety were secondary outcome measures. Data collection took place between January 2012 and July 2013. Results: Nineteen participants (73%) completed the MBCT program. No significant adverse events were reported in either treatment group. ITT analysis (n = 40) revealed no significant differences. Repeated-measures analyses of variance for the per-protocol sample (n = 33) revealed a significant treatment × time interaction (F1,31 = 4.67, P = .039, η2p = 0.13) for QIDS-C16 score, driven by a significant decrease in the MBCT group (t18 = 5.15, P < .001, d = 1.6), but not in the control group (t13 = 2.01, P = .066). The HDRS17 scores did not differ significantly between groups. The study ended before the projected sample size was obtained, which might have prevented effect detection in some outcome measures. Conclusions: MBCT shows potential as a treatment for depression in individuals with chronic pain, but larger controlled trials are needed.

Objective: Chronic pain is a disabling illness, often comorbid with depression. We performed a randomized controlled pilot study on mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) targeting depression in a chronic pain population.Method: Participants with chronic pain lasting ≥ 3 months; DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD), dysthymic disorder, or depressive disorder not otherwise specified; and a 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Clinician Rated (QIDS-C16) score ≥ 6 were randomly assigned to MBCT (n = 26) or waitlist (n = 14). We adapted the original MBCT intervention for depression relapse prevention by modifying the psychoeducation and cognitive-behavioral therapy elements to an actively depressed chronic pain population. We analyzed an intent-to-treat (ITT) and a per-protocol sample; the per-protocol sample included participants in the MBCT group who completed at least 4 of 8 sessions. Changes in scores on the QIDS-C16 and 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Sale (HDRS17) were the primary outcome measures. Pain, quality of life, and anxiety were secondary outcome measures. Data collection took place between January 2012 and July 2013. Results: Nineteen participants (73%) completed the MBCT program. No significant adverse events were reported in either treatment group. ITT analysis (n = 40) revealed no significant differences. Repeated-measures analyses of variance for the per-protocol sample (n = 33) revealed a significant treatment × time interaction (F1,31 = 4.67, P = .039, η2p = 0.13) for QIDS-C16 score, driven by a significant decrease in the MBCT group (t18 = 5.15, P < .001, d = 1.6), but not in the control group (t13 = 2.01, P = .066). The HDRS17 scores did not differ significantly between groups. The study ended before the projected sample size was obtained, which might have prevented effect detection in some outcome measures. Conclusions: MBCT shows potential as a treatment for depression in individuals with chronic pain, but larger controlled trials are needed.

Antidepressant medication (AD) is the most often used treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD), prescribed to an estimated 73.8% of the MDD patients in care in 2007 [1] . However,many patients with MDD who experience full symptomatic remission after AD treatment still have residual depressive symptoms, which have been associated with continued impaired functioning [2] . The sequential addition of psychotherapy to pharmacotherapy has therefore been considered, and shown, to offer a better possibility of improving long-term outcome in terms of reduced relapse/recurrence [3] . Since positive emotions play a crucial role in the development of long-term personal skills and resources through broadening awareness and behavioural repertoires [4] , it is of interest to examine whether adding psychotherapy to AD treatment has beneficial effects on positive emotional experiences