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INTRODUCTION: A growing body of literature recognizes the importance of resilience in the nursing profession. Both mindfulness and resilience aid in handling stress, stress increases the risk of rumination and/or worry especially in females and they are more empathetic than other healthcare students. AIM: To identify correlates and predictors of the resilience among nursing students. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a descriptive correlation study and we have recruited 194 participants (1-4(th) year B.Sc Nursing) from Government College of Nursing and NIMHANS College of Nursing in Bangalore, India. The following instruments were used to collect the data, Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI), Toronto Empathy Questionnaire (TEQ), Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire (PTQ) and Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC). Data was analysed using Pearson's correlation test and multiple regression analysis. RESULTS: Resilience is significantly correlated with mindfulness, perseverative thinking and empathy in nursing students. Based on regression analysis this model accounted for almost 33% of variance in resilience. This result is of interest as mindfulness alone explained 23% of the variance and unproductive Repeated Negative Thinking (RNT) and RNT consuming mental capacity predicted 8% and 2% respectively. CONCLUSION: These results support the importance of resilience and mindfulness in nursing students. Hence, resilience and/or mindfulness enhancing interventions should be inculcated in nursing education.

Executive function (EF) is important for physical and mental health of children. Studies have shown that children with poverty and early life stress have reduced EF. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of Yoga program on the EF of orphan adolescents. Seventy two apparently healthy orphan adolescents randomized and allocated into two groups as Yoga group (n = 40; 14 girls, age = 12.69 +/- 1.35 yrs) and Wait List Control (WLC) group (n = 32, 13 girls, age = 12.58 +/- 1.52 yrs). Yoga group underwent three months of Yoga program in a schedule of 90 min per day, four days per week whereas the WLC group followed the routine activities. They were assessed by Stroop Color-Word Task, Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), Digits Span Test and Trial Making Test (TMT) at the beginning and end of the program. The repeated measures ANOVA showed significant difference in time and group interactions (p < 0.05) for all subtests of Stroop Color-Word Task and Digit Span Test and part-A of TMT whereas there were no significant difference found in DSST and TMT (part-B). The post-hoc test with Bonferroni adjustment also showed significant improvements (p < 0.001) within the Yoga group in all test scores while in wrong score of DSST did not exhibit significant reduction. Whereas the WLC group, showed significant improvement (p < 0.05) in Stroop Color, Color-Word score, net score of DSST, Digit Span forward and Digit Span Total. Three months Yoga program was found useful for the young orphan adolescents in improving their executive functions.

INTRODUCTION: Nursing students experience considerable amount of stress to meet their professional demands. Yoga is an effective practice to reduce stress and improve psychological well being. However, improvement in psychological well being aids in stress management. AIM: To evaluate the effectiveness of eight week yoga intervention on psychological functioning of nursing students. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a randomised Wait List Control (WLC) trial, we recruited total 100 students from Kempegowda Institute of Nursing, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India and randomized them into two groups (yoga=50 and WLC=50 students). The following instruments were used to collect the data, Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI), Self-Compassion Scale- Short Form (SCS-SF), Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Jefferson Scale of Empathy HPS-Version (JSE-HPS), and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Data was analysed using Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance (RM-ANOVA) followed by post-hoc Bonferroni correction for all psychological variables. RESULTS: The results of our study report that eight week yoga intervention was significantly effective in improving self compassion and mindfulness among nursing students in experimental group than compared to WLC group. Even though there were improvements in resilience, satisfaction in life and perceived stress, results were not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Overall, results of the present study have demonstrated impact of eight week yoga intervention on the psychological functioning of nursing students. Yoga intervention can be inculcated in the nursing education to meet demands of the profession.

Depression affects about 121 million people worldwide and prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) in US adults is 6.4%. Treatment resistant depression (TRD) accounts for approximately 12-20% of all depression patients and costs $29-$48 billion annually. Ketamine and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) have useful roles in TRD, but their utility in long term is unknown. As per the latest literature, the interventions using Yoga and meditation including the mindfulness based cognitive therapy (MBCT) have been useful in treatment of depression and relapse prevention. We present a review of rTMS, ketamine, and MBCT and also report efficacy of a depression specific, innovative, and translational model of Yoga and mindfulness based cognitive therapy (DepS Y-MBCT), developed by the first author. DepS Y-MBCT as an adjunctive treatment successfully ameliorated TRD symptoms in 27/32 patients in an open label pilot trial in TRD patients. Considering the limitations of existing treatment options, including those of ketamine and rTMS when used as the sole modality of treatment, we suggest a "tiered approach for TRD" by combining ketamine and rTMS (alone or along with antidepressants) for rapid remission of acute depression symptoms and to use DepS Y-MBCT for maintaining remission and preventing relapse.

Background: Children with developmental disabilities generally experience more pain than the normal children due to chronic systemic conditions associated with their disability. Description of pain is generally difficult in children and more so in children with intellectual disabilities (IDs). Yoga has been regarded as a kind of physical activity as well as a pain management strategy. Previous studies have reported the beneficial role of yoga in enhancing physical and psychomotor abilities of IDs; however, a validated yoga module (YM) for IDs is unavailable. The present study is aimed at developing a validated YM for children with IDs. Materials and Methods: The content validity of YM for children with IDs was assessed by a panel of 22 experienced yoga experts. The YM for children with IDs was developed in the form of tailor-made yoga practices that were supported by classical texts and research evidence. A total of 32 practices were included in the YM, and each practice was discussed and rated as (i) not essential, (ii) useful but not essential, and (iii) essential. The content validitity ratiowas calculated using Lawshe's formula. Results: Data analysis showed that out of 32 YM practices, 31 indicated significant content validity (cutoff value: 0.42, as calculated by applying Lawshe's formula for the CVR). Conclusions: The present study suggests that the YM for children with IDs is valid with good content validity. However, future randomized controlled trials must determine the feasibility and efficacy of the developed YM for children with IDs.

Objectives: This study was aimed to assess the efficacy of yoga-based lifestyle program (YLSP) in improving quality of life (QOL) and stress levels in patients after 5 years of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). Methodology: Three hundred patients posted for elective CABG in Narayana Hrudayalaya Super Speciality Hospital, Bengaluru, were randomized into two groups: YLSP and conventional lifestyle program (CLSP), and follow-up was done for 5 years. Intervention: In YLSP group, all practices of integrative approach of yoga therapy such as yama, niyama, asana, pranayama, and meditation were used as an add-on to conventional cardiac rehabilitation. The control group (CLSP) continued conventional cardiac rehabilitation only. Outcome Measures: World Health Organization (WHO)-QOL BREF Questionnaire, Perceived Stress Scale, Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were assessed before surgery and at the end of the 5(th) year after CABG. As data were not normally distributed, Mann-Whitney U-test was used for between-group comparisons and Wilcoxon's signed-rank test was used for within-group comparisons. Results: At the end of 5 years, mental health (P = 0.05), perceived stress (P = 0.01), and negative affect (NA) (P = 0.05) have shown significant improvements. WHO-QOL BREF score has shown improvements in physical health (P = 0.046), environmental health (P = 0.04), perceived stress (P = 0.001), and NA (P = 0.02) in YLSP than CLSP. Positive affect has significantly improved in CLSP than YLSP. Other domains of WHO-QOL-BREF, PANAS, and HADS did not reveal any significant between-group differences. Conclusion: Addition of long-term YLSP to conventional cardiac rehabilitation brings better improvements in QOL and reduction in stress levels at the end of 5 years after CABG.

INTRODUCTION: Muscle strength, a component for balance, gait and functional mobility is vital for children with visual impairment. Yoga has frequently been demonstrated to improve physical and mental fitness in children. This study aimed to assess the effect of 16 weeks yoga training on muscular fi tness in children with visual impairment. METHODS: This was a wait-listed two-armed-matched case-control study. Eighty (41 yoga, 39 control) visual impairment students of both genders aged 9-16 years matched on age, gender and degree of blindness were assessed at pre, mid (after 8 weeks) and post (after 16 weeks) yoga intervention using the Kraus-Weber test. RESULTS: The percentage of students passed in yoga group were 12.2%, 43.9% and 68.3% whereas percentages in the control group were 23.1%, 30.8% and 30.8% in pre, mid, and post tests respectively. McNemar test showed significant differences between pre and mid, mid and post in the yoga group while those parameters were not significantly different in the control group. Yoga therapy seemed to have considerable benefits for the children's muscular fi tness. CONCLUSION: The study suggests that yoga have considerable benefits for improvement of fitness level in children with visual impairment and may be recommended as and effective, alternative, inexpensive low risk training activity option for them.

CONTEXT: Childhood visual deficiency impairs children's neuro-psychomotor development, considerably affecting physical, mental, social, and emotional health. Yoga's multifaceted approach may help children with visual impairment (VI) to cope with their challenges. AIM: This study aimed to develop a special protocol for teaching yoga to children with VI, and to evaluate their preferred method of learning. METHODS: The study was carried out at Ramana Maharishi Academy for the Blind, Bengaluru, South India. Forty-one students volunteered to learn yoga practices, and classes were held weekly 5 days, 1 hr per session for 16 weeks. The study introduced a new method using a sequence of five teaching steps: verbal instructions, tactile modeling, step-by-step teaching, learning in a group, and physical guidance. A questionnaire concerning the preferred steps of learning was then given to each student, and verbal answers were obtained. RESULTS: A total of 33 (out of 41), aged 11.97 +/- 1.94, 15 girls and 18 boys responded. Twenty-six (78.79%) chose physical guidance as their most favored learning mode. CONCLUSIONS: Specially designed protocol may pave the way to impart yoga in an exciting and comfortable way to children with VI. More studies are needed to further investigate the effectiveness of this new yoga protocol in similar settings.