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Cued spatial attention modulates functionally relevant alpha rhythms in visual cortices in humans. Here, we present evidence for analogous phenomena in primary somatosensory neocortex (SI). Using magnetoencephalography, we measured changes in the SI mu rhythm containing mu-alpha (7–14 Hz) and mu-beta (15–29 Hz) components. We found that cued attention impacted mu-alpha in the somatopically localized hand representation in SI, showing decreased power after attention was cued to the hand and increased power after attention was cued to the foot, with significant differences observed 500–1100 ms after cue. Mu-beta showed differences in a time window 800–850 ms after cue. The visual cue also drove an early evoked response beginning ∼70 ms after cue with distinct peaks modulated with cued attention. Distinct components of the tactile stimulus-evoked response were also modulated with cued attention. Analysis of a second dataset showed that, on a trial-by-trial basis, tactile detection probabilities decreased linearly with prestimulus mu-alpha and mu-beta power. These results support the growing consensus that cue-induced alpha modulation is a functionally relevant sensory gating mechanism deployed by attention. Further, while cued attention had a weaker effect on the allocation of mu-beta, oscillations in this band also predicted tactile detection.
Background Behavioral paradigms applied during human recordings in electro- and magneto- encephalography (EEG and MEG) typically require 1–2 hours of data collection. Over this time scale, the natural fluctuations in brain state or rapid learning effects could impact measured signals, but are seldom analyzed. Methods and Findings We investigated within-session dynamics of neocortical alpha (7–14 Hz) rhythms and their allocation with cued-attention using MEG recorded from primary somatosensory neocortex (SI) in humans. We found that there were significant and systematic changes across a single ∼1 hour recording session in several dimensions, including increased alpha power, increased differentiation in attention-induced alpha allocation, increased distinction in immediate time-locked post-cue evoked responses in SI to different visual cues, and enhanced power in the immediate cue-locked alpha band frequency response. Further, comparison of two commonly used baseline methods showed that conclusions on the evolution of alpha dynamics across a session were dependent on the normalization method used. Conclusions These findings are important not only as they relate to studies of oscillations in SI, they also provide a robust example of the type of dynamic changes in brain measures within a single session that are overlooked in most human brain imaging/recording studies.
During selective attention, ∼7–14 Hz alpha rhythms are modulated in early sensory cortices, suggesting a mechanistic role for these dynamics in perception. Here, we investigated whether alpha modulation can be enhanced by “mindfulness” meditation (MM), a program training practitioners in sustained attention to body and breath-related sensations. We hypothesized that participants in the MM group would exhibit enhanced alpha power modulation in a localized representation in the primary somatosensory neocortex in response to a cue, as compared to participants in the control group. Healthy subjects were randomized to 8-weeks of MM training or a control group. Using magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recording of the SI finger representation, we found meditators demonstrated enhanced alpha power modulation in response to a cue. This finding is the first to show enhanced local alpha modulation following sustained attentional training, and implicates this form of enhanced dynamic neural regulation in the behavioral effects of meditative practice.
Objective: To identify the common Tibetan herb Chuan-Bu.; Method: Local herbalists were visited to observe which plants were being used as Chuan-Bu. Samples of the indigenous plants were collected at the same time. Leaf materials were collected from field surveys. Total genomic DNA was extracted from silica gel-dried leaf samples. The PCR products were purified and directly sequenced.; Result: As the origin of Chuan-Bu in Tibet autonomous region was authenticated, two species were determined, i. e. Euphorbia stracheyiand E. wallichii. Also, based on our earlier research, the origin of Chuan-Bu in Gansu province, is from E. kansuensis. The sequences of ITS1 for E. stracheyi and E. wallichii were 261 bp in size, and 221 bp in ITS2, respectively. The size of the 5.8S coding region was 164 bp for all species examined in the genus. Especially, there was a heterozygous locus in ITS1 (C/G; position 72) for E. stracheyi. The nucleotide divergence between sequences of the 6 species in pairwise comparisons was calculated and the result showed that the variable site could be detected in each pairwise comparison of sequences. Also, there were 8 point mutations in the 5.8S coding region.; Conclusion: nrDNA ITS sequences can be used as the molecular markers to identify the Tibetan herb Chuan-Bu and such Traditional Chinese Medicines from the same genus Euphorbia as E. lathyris, E. humifusa and E. pekinensis.;