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Depressive severity has been associated with attenuated neocortical frontal midline theta (Fm-θ) power/evoked activity. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) has shown to be a successful novel intervention for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), albeit precise working mechanisms remain elusive. We examined the hypothesis that MBCT would have modulating effects upon evoked Fm-θ power, in addition to investigating possible mediation of induced event-related de/synchronisation (ERD/ERS) dynamics. Fifty one patients with a primary diagnosis of MDD (26 exposed to MBCT vs. 25 wait-list/WL controls) undertook a Go/NoGo task consisting of positive, negative and neutral words, further stratified into abstract versus trait adjective matrices. Depressive symptom severity and rumination were also examined. A pattern of enhanced induced Fm-θ synchronisation during the latter 400–800 ms temporal-window pre-to-post MBCT was observed; the contrary in the WL. Modulated ERD/ERS dynamics correlated to amelioration in depressive and rumination symptoms in the MBCT group. We propose the primary action pathway alluded to a neural disengagement mechanism enacting upon tonic neuronal assemblies implicated in emotional and self-related processing. Due to the complexity and presently undiscovered complete unified scientific understanding of neuro-oscillatory-dynamics, and associated clinical interplays; we hypothesise that the electro-cortical and connected clinical working pathways of MBCT in depression are multi-levelled constituting nonlinear and interdependent mechanisms, represented by mediated EEG synchronisation dynamics.