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Aim: To reinvestigate the chemical constituents of the ethanolic extract of Meconopsis quintuplinervia Regel which is a traditional Tibetan medicine used for treatments of hepatitis, tuberculosis etc..; Methods: The compounds were enriched by column chromatography techniques over silica gel, macro porous resin and Sephadex LH-20 absorbents, and finally purified by reverse phase preparative HPLC methods with isocratic mobile phase systems of methanol-H2O-acetic acid (500:500:1) and acetonitrile-H2O-acetic acid (200:800:1). Structural determination of the pure compounds were based on extensive analyses of modern spectroscopic methods including IR, MS, HRMS, 1D- and 2D-NMR spectra.; Results: Three alkaloids were obtained and their structures were elucidated as norsanguinarine (I), O-methylflavinantine (II) and 6-methoxy-17-methyl-2, 3-[methylenebis (oxy)]-morphin-5-en-7-one (III).; Conclusion: Norsanguinarine (I) was isolated from genus Meconopsis for the first time, and 6-methoxy-17-methyl-2,3-[methylenebis(oxy)]-morphin-5-en-7-one (III) is a new alkaloid named as meconoquintupline.;

To explore the medication regularity of Tibetan medicine in the treatment of spleen and stomach diseases, analyze the potential drug targets and interactions of the prescriptions, and reveal the mechanism of Tibetan medicine in the treatment of spleen and stomach diseases. The prescriptions in Tibetan medicine for treatment of spleen and stomach diseases were collected, and Traditional Chinese Medicine Inheritance Support System (TCMISS) was used to analyze the association rules between the herbs and discover the core herbs and new prescriptions. The integrated pharmacology platform V1.0 software was used to construct "herb-compound-target" network and investigate the interactions between various herbs and related pathways of Tibetan medicine Wuwei Shiliu powder in the treatment of spleen and stomach diseases. Among the 216 prescriptions of Tibetan medicine in the treatment of spleen and stomach diseases, pomegranate seed was used at a highest frequency (118 times), followed by white cardamom (107 times) and comatose (107 times). 12 new prescriptions were evolved by using the association rules (support>=34%, confidence>=0.85). 5 242 related drug targets and 20 related pathways were obtained from classic formula Wuwei Shiliu Powder (FDR<0.01). It was proposed that Tibetan medicine treatment for spleen and stomach diseases was mainly based on proliferation of "stomach fire" and the main drugs were for regulating Qi-flowing for strengthening spleen. The mechanism may be associated with regulation of digestive juice secretion, proton pump, mitochondria, regulation of intestinal digestion and immunity, the body's immunity to microorganisms function and other multiple targets and pathways to achieve the joint intervention.

The aqueous extracts i.p. of Dracocephalum tanguticum Maxim (DtM), a Tibetan medicine, prolong sighificantly decapitaion-induced gasping duration in mice and the survival time of mice ligated bilateral carotid (P > 0.01). DtM prolong also the primal gasping in mice after injecting the air into the coccygeal vein (P > 0.01) and the survival time in mice poisoned by Lidocaine (P > 0.05). In addition, DtM is possessed of protecting against the pathologic lession of brain in rats under stimulating high altitude hypoxic condition. The results suggest that DtM has a antianoxic effects on mice.

Dihuang powder (DHP) has been used in the traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of diarrhea in some regions of China. But up to now, the anti-diarrheal activity of DHP haven't been performed with modern pharmacological technology. This study aims to investigate the quality control, the potential toxicity and anti-diarrheal activity of Dihuang powder in mice. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and thin layer chromatography (TLC) were used to detect five active compounds in DHP for quality control, and the acute toxicity and sub-acute toxicity for 28-day oral administration of DHP were then evaluated. The anti-diarrheal activity was investigated using mouse model. Results showed that the levels of quercetin and berberine in DHP were 0.054 and 0.632 mg/g, respectively, and atractylodin, matrine, and patehouli aleohal were also detected in DHP. At the given doses, DHP was safe in terms of acute and sub-acute toxicity. Meanwhile, DHP exhibited strong anti-diarrheal effects as well as decreased gastrointestinal motility and the secretions induced by Sennae and castor oil in a dose-dependent manner. It could decrease the content of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in the small intestine, and improve the histopathological changes of small intestine and large intestine induced by Sennae. The antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities in vivo also were presented. Based on all of the results, we thought that DHP has anti-diarrheal activity, and could be used to treat diarrhea as well as alleviate the pain and inflammation induced by diarrhea. This study provides a theoretical basis for the clinical use of DHP and may assist in the development of new drugs for the treatment of diarrhea. The mechanism of the anti-diarrheal activity should be investigated in the future.

As important secondary plant metabolites, naphthoquinones exhibit a wide range of biological activities. However, their potential as sustainable alternatives to synthetic acaricides has not been studied. This study for the first time investigates the acaricidal activity of naphthoquinones against Psoroptes cuniculi in vitro. Furthermore, the in vivo activity, the skin irritation effects, the cytotoxicity and the inhibitory activities against mite acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) of the two compounds that displayed the best insecticidal activity in vitro were evaluated. Among fourteen naphthoquinones and their analogs, juglone and plumbagin were observed to possess the strongest acaricidal activities against P. cuniculi with LC50 values of 20.53 ppm and 17.96 ppm, respectively, at 24 h. After three treatments, these two chemicals completely cured naturally infested rabbits in vivo within 15 days, and no skin irritation was found in any of the treated rabbits. Compared to plumbagin, juglone presented no or weak cytotoxicity against HL-7702 cells. Moreover, these two chemicals significantly inhibited AChE and GST activity. These results indicate that juglone has promising toxicity against P. cuniculi, is safe for both humans and animals at certain doses, and could be used as a potential alternative bio-acaricide for controlling the development of psoroptic mange in agricultural applications.

To follow-up on our prior Part I review, this Part II review summarizes and provides updated literature on novel quinoline and quinazoline alkaloids isolated during the period of 2009-2016, together with the biological activity and the mechanisms of action of these classes of natural products. Over 200 molecules with a broad range of biological activities, including antitumor, antiparasitic and insecticidal, antibacterial and antifungal, cardioprotective, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, anti-asthma, antitussive, and other activities, are discussed. This survey should provide new clues or possibilities for the discovery of new and better drugs from the original naturally occurring quinoline and quinazoline alkaloids.

Because of the absence of the time course of histological nonalcoholic fatty hepatitis with subsequent fibrotic progression, the effective approaches available for controlling the onset and progression of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) remain limited. Therefore, we detected the serum and liver tissue related lipid metabolism disorder, liver pathology and relative molecular makers alteration dynamically in a high fat-sucrose diet during different time points. High fat-sucrose diet significantly increased the serum lipid level on day 10. The excess lipid accumulation in liver was referred to as simple steatosis after the feeding of a high fat-sucrose diet for 20 days. The high fat-sucrose diet induced a hepatic inflammation response on day 30. Similarly, hepatic fibrosis was also initiated on day 30 and gradually formed from the 30th to the 50th day. Oxidative stress may be related with the process from NASH to liver fibrosis. Insulin resistance was involved in the progression from hepatic steatosis to NASH with hepatic fibrosis from the 20th to the 50th day. In conclusion, we established a high fat-sucrose diet induced nonalcoholic fatty hepatitis with liver fibrosis rat model, which presented the time course of histological nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and the initiation and progression change of characteristic molecular makers in the process from steatosis to hepatic fibrosis.

Dermatosis often as a chronic disease requires effective long-term treatment; a comprehensive evaluation of mental health of dermatology drug does not receive enough attention. An interaction between dermatology and psychiatry has been increasingly described. Substantial evidence has accumulated that psychological stress can be associated with pigmentation, endocrine and immune systems in skin to create the optimal responses against pathogens and other physicochemical stressors to maintain or restore internal homeostasis. Additionally, given the common ectodermal origin shared by the brain and skin, we are interested in assessing how disruption of skin systems (pigmentary, endocrine and immune systems) may play a key role in brain functions. Thus, we selected three drugs (hydroquinone, isotretinoin, tacrolimus) with percutaneous excessive delivery to respectively intervene in these systems and then evaluate the potential neurotoxic effects. Firstly, C57BL/6 mice were administrated a dermal dose of hydroquinone cream, isotretinoin gel or tacrolimus ointment (2%, 0.05%, 0.1%, respectively, 5 times of the clinical dose). Behavioral testing was performed and levels of proteins were measured in the hippocampus. It was found that mice treated with isotretinoin or tacrolimus, presented a lower activity in open-field test and obvious depressive-like behavior in tail suspension test. Besides, they damaged cytoarchitecture, reduced the level of 5-HT-5-HT1A/1B system and increased the expression of apoptosis-related proteins in the hippocampus. To enable sensitive monitoring the dose-response characteristics of the consecutive neurobehavioral disorders, mice received gradient concentrations of hydroquinone (2%, 4%, 6%). Subsequently, hydroquinone induced behavioral disorders and hippocampal dysfunction in a dose-dependent response. When doses were high as 6% which was 3 times higher than 2% dose, then 100% of mice exhibited depressive-like behavior. Certainly, 6% hydroquinone exposure elicited the most serious impairment of hippocampal structure and survival. The fact that higher doses of hydroquinone are associated with a greater risk of depression is further indication that hydroquinone is responsible for the development of depression. These above data demonstrated that chronic administration of different dermatology drugs contributed into common mental distress. This surprising discovery of chemical stressors stimulating the hippocampal dysfunction, paves the way for exciting areas of study on the cross-talk between the skin and the brain, as well as is suggesting how to develop effective and safe usage of dermatological drugs in daily practice.

Stress, specifically chronic unpredictable stress and chronic restrained stress, induce depigmentation in C57BL/6 mice. Fluoxetine promoted melanin production and the migration of melanocytes via 5-HT1A receptor and 5-HT2A receptor, respectively.<br><br>Display Omitted<br>• Fluoxetine ameliorates CUMS and CRS induced depigmentation in C57BL/6 mouse. • Fluoxetine induces melanogenesis via activating the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK signaling pathways. • 5-HT1A and 2A receptors regulated fluoxetine increased melanocyte melanogenesis and migration.<br>Background: 5-HT1A receptor was participated in fluoxetine induced melanogenesis in melanocytes and in normal C57BL/6 mice, but we know little about whether other 5-HT receptors are involved in regulation of fluoxetine promotes pigmentation.<br>Objective: To investigate the role of 5-HT receptors in regulation of fluoxetine ameliorates chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) and chronic restraint stress (CRS) induce hypopigmentation in C57BL/6 mice.<br>Methods: CUMS and CRS were used to induce depigmentation in mice and evaluate the effect of fluoxetine. Western blot, immunohistochemistry and Q-PCR assay were used to determine the levels of protein and mRNA. Masson Fontana staining was used for melanin staining and FITC-Phalloidin staining was used to detect the expression of F-actin. Zebrafish and B16F10 cells were used for the mechanism research.<br>Results: Fluoxetine (2.6 mg/kg, ig) ameliorated hypopigmentation induced by CUMS and CRS in mice, significantly increased the mRNA and protein levels of 5-HT1 A and 5-HT2 A receptors in mice and B16F10 cells. The effect of fluoxetine on melanogenesis in B16F10 cells and zebrafish were inhibited by WAY100635 (a selective 5-HT1 A receptor antagonist) and ketanserin (a 5-HT2 A receptor antagonist), respectively. Activation of p38 MAPK signaling pathways was contributed to fluoxetine induced melanogenesis and inhibited by WAY100635, but not ketanserin. However, ketanserin selectively weakened the action of fluoxetine promoted migration and up-regulated Rab27a protein expression in B16F10 cells.<br>Conclusions: 5-HT1 A and 2 A receptors contribute to melanogenesis and migration property of fluoxetine. The newly revealed mechanism indicates that fluoxetine and its analogues may be a potential drug for treatment of depigmentation disorders.

Zuotai is a drug containing mercury considered to be the king of Tibetan medicine. The biosafety of Zuotai led people's attention and so far little is known about the toxicity of Zuotai to mast cells. RBL-2H3 cells which used as an alternative model of mast cells were treated with Zuotai, β-HgS and positive drug Compound 48/80 respectively. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to determine the toxicity of drugs to RBL-2H3 cells. The degranulation of RBL-2H3 cells was studied from β-hexosaminidase, histamine, interleukin (IL)-4 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). The result showed that Zuotai can affect the cytotoxicity and degranulation of RBL-2H3 cells and the results can provide reference for the toxicity evaluations of Tibetan medicine Zuotai.

Zuotai is a drug containing mercury considered to be the king of Tibetan medicine. The biosafety of Zuotai led people's attention and so far little is known about the toxicity of Zuotai to mast cells. RBL-2H3 cells which used as an alternative model of mast cells were treated with Zuotai, β-HgS and positive drug Compound 48/80 respectively. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to determine the toxicity of drugs to RBL-2H3 cells. The degranulation of RBL-2H3 cells was studied from β-hexosaminidase, histamine, interleukin (IL)-4 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). The result showed that Zuotai can affect the cytotoxicity and degranulation of RBL-2H3 cells and the results can provide reference for the toxicity evaluations of Tibetan medicine Zuotai.

Zuotai and cinnabar(96%HgS) are contained in many traditional medicines. To examine their potential effects on drug metabolism genes, mice were orally given Zuotai or HgS at doses of 10, 30, 100, 300 mg•kg⁻¹ for 7 days. HgCl2(33.6 mg•kg⁻¹) was gavaged for control. Twenty-four hour later after the last administration, livers were collected, and expressions of genes related to metabolic enzymes and transporters were examined. Zuotai and HgS had no effects on major phase-1, phase-2 and transporter genes; HgCl2 increased the expressions of CYP2B10, CYP4A10, OATP1A4, UGT1A1, UGT2A3, SULT1A1, SULT2A1, MRP1, MRP3 and MRP4; expression of OATP1A1 was decreased by HgCl2, but not by Zuotai and HgS. Therefore, Zuotai and HgS have different adverse effects on drug-metabolizing genes from HgCl2.

The present study aimed at investigating the possible effects of β-elemene on the progression of atherosclerosis in a rabbit model. The rabbit atherosclerosis model was established by the combination of balloon angioplasty-induced endothelial injury and an atherogenic diet fed to the rabbits. New Zealand White rabbits were randomly divided into four groups (8/group): the normal control group (fed with normal chow diet), and three experimental groups, placebo group, atorvastatin group, and β-elemene group (received the atherogenic diet). After two weeks on the diet, the three experimental groups underwent balloon injury at right common carotid artery and were treated with drugs or placebo for five weeks. Serum lipids were measured. Carotid artery lesions were isolated for histological and immunohistochemical analysis. In vitro, RAW264.7 macrophages were pretreated with β-elemene and ox-LDL for 24 h and the viability of macrophages was assayed using the MTT method. TNF-α and IL-6 were also determined. Compared with the control group, the thickness of the atherosclerosis lesion in the placebo group was significantly increased; The thickness the drug treatment groups were significantly decreased, compared with that of the placebo group. The infiltration of macrophage was markedly reduced in the β-elemene group compared with that of the placebo group. β-elemene treatment also reduced the levels of TC, TG, and LDL-C, compared with the placebo group. β-elemene decreased the TNF-α and IL-6 levels in vitro. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that β-elemene retarded the progression of atherosclerosis in vivo and in vitro, which may be related to the capacity of β-elemene to reduce the infiltration of macrophages and suppress inflammatory factors.

Abstract Ethnopharmacological relevance Zuotai (gTso thal) has a long history in the treatment of cardiovascular disease, liver and bile diseases, spleen and stomach diseases as a precious adjuvant in Tibetan medicine. However, Zuotai is a mercury preparation that contains 54.5% HgS. Its application has always been controversial. Aim of the study To evaluate the toxicological effects of Zuotai in hepatocytes and in zebrafish. Materials and methods MTT was used to determine the survival rate of hepatocytes; Hoechst and TUNEL staining were used to detect the apoptosis cells; Western blot and RT-qPCR assay were used to determine the expression levels of the protein and mRNA; Liver morphology observation and H&E staining were used to evaluate the hepatotoxicity of Zuotai in Zebfrafish. Results The survival rate of L-02 cells, HepG2 cells and RBL-2A cells reduced by Zuotai (10−4–0.1 mg/mL) in a dose and time-dependent manner. Zuotai (0.1 mg/mL) induced HepG2 cells shrinkage, condensation and fragmentation and increased the number of apoptosis cells. The protein expression levels of cleaved Caspase-3 and Bax were increased and the expression levels of Bcl-2 were reduced after HepG2 cells exposed to Zuotai (10−4–0.1 mg/mL) for 24 h. In addition, Zuotai (0.2 mg/mL) induced the darker liver color of the larval zebrafish and changed the liver morphologic of adult zebrafish. Zuotai (0.2 mg/mL) also increased the mRNA levels of CYP1A1, CYP1B1 and MT-1 in the liver of adult zebrafish. However, no significantly hepatotoxicity was observed after hepatocytes and zebrafish exposed to HgS at the same dose. Conclusions Results showed that Zuotai induced hepatotoxicity effectively under a certain dose but its hepatotoxicity likely occurs via other mechanisms that did not depend on HgS. Graphical abstract Zuotai, a clinical adjuvant in Tibetan medicine, contains 54.5% HgS, which can induce apoptosis of liver cells and liver injury in zebrafish. However, HgS, the principal component of Zuotai did not exhibit hepatotoxicity at the same dose. fx1 [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Zuotai (gTso thal) has a long history in the treatment of cardiovascular disease, liver and bile diseases, spleen and stomach diseases as a precious adjuvant in Tibetan medicine. However, Zuotai is a mercury preparation that contains 54.5% HgS. Its application has always been controversial. AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the toxicological effects of Zuotai in hepatocytes and in zebrafish. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MTT was used to determine the survival rate of hepatocytes; Hoechst and TUNEL staining were used to detect the apoptosis cells; Western blot and RT-qPCR assay were used to determine the expression levels of the protein and mRNA; Liver morphology observation and H&E staining were used to evaluate the hepatotoxicity of Zuotai in Zebfrafish. RESULTS: The survival rate of L-02 cells, HepG2 cells and RBL-2A cells reduced by Zuotai (10-4-0.1 mg/mL) in a dose and time-dependent manner. Zuotai (0.1 mg/mL) induced HepG2 cells shrinkage, condensation and fragmentation and increased the number of apoptosis cells. The protein expression levels of cleaved Caspase-3 and Bax were increased and the expression levels of Bcl-2 were reduced after HepG2 cells exposed to Zuotai (10-4-0.1 mg/mL) for 24 h. In addition, Zuotai (0.2 mg/mL) induced the darker liver color of the larval zebrafish and changed the liver morphologic of adult zebrafish. Zuotai (0.2 mg/mL) also increased the mRNA levels of CYP1A1, CYP1B1 and MT-1 in the liver of adult zebrafish. However, no significantly hepatotoxicity was observed after hepatocytes and zebrafish exposed to HgS at the same dose. CONCLUSIONS: Results showed that Zuotai induced hepatotoxicity effectively under a certain dose but its hepatotoxicity likely occurs via other mechanisms that did not depend on HgS.

The genus Adonis L. (Ranunculaceae), native to Europe and Asia, comprises 32 annual or perennial herbaceous species. Due to their cardiac-enhancing effects, Adonis spp. have long been used in European and Chinese folk medicine. These plants have been widely investigated since the late 19th century, when the cardiovascular activity of Adonis vernalis L. was noted in Europe. The present paper provides a review of the phytochemistry, biological activities and toxicology in order to highlight the future prospects of the genus. More than 120 chemical compounds have been isolated, with the most important components being cardiac glycosides as well as flavones, carotenoids, coumarins and other structural types. Plants of the genus, especially A. vernalis L. and A. amurensis Regel & Radde, their extracts and their active constituents possess broad pharmacological properties, including cardiovascular, antiangiogenic, antibacterial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and acaricidal activities, and exhibit both diuretic effects and effects on the central nervous system. However, most plants within the 32 species have not been comprehensively studied, and further clinical evaluation of their cardiovascular activity and toxicity should be conducted after addressing the problem of the rapidly decreasing resources. This review provides new insight into the genus and lays a solid foundation for further development of Adonis.

This study aims to reveal the potential relationship between 5-HT and oxidative stress in the organism. Our in vitro experiments in RIN-14B cells showed that anoxia leads the cells to the state of oxidative stress. Administration of exogenous 5-HT exacerbated this effect, whereas the inhibition of Tph1, LP533401 alleviated the oxidative stress. Several research articles reported that Cinnabar (consists of more than 96% mercury sulfide, HgS), which is widely used in both Chinese and Indian traditional medicine prescriptions, has been involved in the regulation of 5-HT. The present research revealed that HgS relieved the level of oxidative stress of RIN-14B cells. This pharmacological activity was also observed in the prescription drug Zuotai, in which HgS accounts for 54.5%, and these effects were found to be similar to LP533401, an experimental drug to treat pulmonary hypertension. Further, our in vivo experiments revealed that the administration of cinnabar or prescription drug Zuotai in zebrafish reduced the reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by hypoxia and cured behavioral abnormalities. Taken together, in organisms with hypoxia induced oxidative stress 5-HT levels were found to be abnormally elevated, indicating that 5-HT could regulate oxidative stress, and the decrease in the 5-HT levels, behavioral abnormalities after treatment with cinnabar and Zuotai, we may conclude that the therapeutic and pharmacologic effect of cinnabar and Zuotai may be based on the regulation of 5-HT metabolism and relief of oxidative stress. Even though they aren't toxic at the present dosage in both cell lines and zebrafish, their dose dependent toxicities are yet to be evaluated.

Stress has been demonstrated to play an important role in hair follicle function and the pathogenesis of some hair disorders. The central hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is activated by stress stimuli, synthesizes and releases various components and eventually induces the pathogenesis and recurrence of peripheral diseases. Our aim is to compare the different responses under exposure of stress in hair follicle function among different mouse strains, and to detect the involvement of the central HPA axis after stress in hair follicle growth and melanogenesis. In this study, we exposed different mouse strains (C57BL/6, CBA/J, C3H/HeN, BALB/c and ICR) to a 21-day chronic restraint stress protocol and selected C57BL/6, CBA/J and BALB/c mice for further study because of their significant behavioral alterations. Then, we evaluated and compared the different responses and sensitivity to chronic restraint stress in hair follicle function and central HPA axis among the selected strains. The results showed that expression of POMC, CRF and GR mRNA and protein and serum levels of corticosterone were inhibited in response to stress. These findings suggested that chronic restraint stress may inhibit hair follicle growth and melanogenesis via regulating the key elements of the central HPA axis. In addition, the results revealed different mouse strains exhibit different responses in the central HPA axis and hair follicle after stress exposure. C57BL/6 might be the most sensitive strain among the three strains tested as well as an appropriate strain to study possible pathophysiological mechanisms by which the nervous system influences skin function and screen dermatological drugs suitable for psychotherapy. We believe the current study will provide some useful information for researchers who are interested in the bidirectional communication between the nervous and skin systems and the management of stress-induced cutaneous diseases. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Stress has been demonstrated to play an important role in hair follicle function and the pathogenesis of some hair disorders. The central hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is activated by stress stimuli, synthesizes and releases various components and eventually induces the pathogenesis and recurrence of peripheral diseases. Our aim is to compare the different responses under exposure of stress in hair follicle function among different mouse strains, and to detect the involvement of the central HPA axis after stress in hair follicle growth and melanogenesis. In this study, we exposed different mouse strains (C57BL/6, CBA/J, C3H/HeN, BALB/c and ICR) to a 21-day chronic restraint stress protocol and selected C57BL/6, CBA/J and BALB/c mice for further study because of their significant behavioral alterations. Then, we evaluated and compared the different responses and sensitivity to chronic restraint stress in hair follicle function and central HPA axis among the selected strains. The results showed that expression of POMC, CRF and GR mRNA and protein and serum levels of corticosterone were inhibited in response to stress. These findings suggested that chronic restraint stress may inhibit hair follicle growth and melanogenesis via regulating the key elements of the central HPA axis. In addition, the results revealed different mouse strains exhibit different responses in the central HPA axis and hair follicle after stress exposure. C57BL/6 might be the most sensitive strain among the three strains tested as well as an appropriate strain to study possible pathophysiological mechanisms by which the nervous system influences skin function and screen dermatological drugs suitable for psychotherapy. We believe the current study will provide some useful information for researchers who are interested in the bidirectional communication between the nervous and skin systems and the management of stress-induced cutaneous diseases.

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)1 is the most common chronic liver disease worldwide. Cichorium glandulosum Boiss. et Huet (CG) is a common traditional Uighur medicine, and it has been widely used as active therapy on various hepatic diseases. Recently, lipid-lowering effect has been revealed on CG. Polysaccharides are principal component of CG which could be the possible lipid-lowering compound in CG. In this study, extraction and purification of CG polysaccharides (CGP) was performed, and the lipid regulation effect of CGP was investigated on NAFLD zebrafish model. The results showed that CGP significantly decreased the levels of TC, TG, and decreased the mRNA expression of srebf-1, and fas, increased the expression of pparab. The findings suggest that the lipid-lowering effects of CGP mainly depend on facilitation of lipolysis (mainly beta-oxidation) or inhibition of lipogenesis. Furthermore, CGP could prevent and causes the regression of steatosis in NAFLD via its lipid metabolism regulation effect.

AIMS: Luteolin is a falconoid compound that has an antioxidant effect, but its contribution to ROS-activated MAPK pathways in ischemia/reperfusion injury is seldom reported. Here, we have confirmed that it exhibits an antioxidant effect in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury (MIRI) by inhibiting ROS-activated MAPK pathways. MAIN METHODS: We exposed rat hearts into the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) ligation for 30min followed by 1h of reperfusion. Observations were carried out using electrocardiography; detection of hemodynamic parameters; and testing levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA). Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway was measured by western blot and transmission electron microscopy was applied to observe the myocardial ultrastructure. Rat H9c2 cell in 95% N2 and 5% CO2 stimulated the MIRI. Oxidation system mRNA levels were measured by real-time PCR; mitochondrial membrane potential and apoptosis were measured by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry; western blot analysis was used to assay caspase-3, -8, and -9 and MAPK pathway protein expression; the MAPK pathway was inhibited using SB203580 (p38 MAPK inhibitor) and SP600125 (c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase inhibitor) before H9c2 cells were exposed to hypoxia/reoxygenation injury to show the modulation of the changes in ROS generation, cell viability and apoptosis. KEY FINDINGS: In vivo, luteolin can ameliorate the impaired mitochondrial morphology, regulating the MAPK pathway to protect MIRI. In vitro, luteolin can affect the oxidation system, mitochondrial membrane potential and MAPK pathway to anti-apoptosis. SIGNIFICANCE: These results reveal a ROS-MAPK mediated mechanism and mitochondrial pathway through which luteolin can protect myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury.

Swertia mussotii Franch. and Swertia chirayita Buch.-Ham. have been commonly used under the same name "Zangyinchen" for the treatment of liver and gallbladder diseases in traditional Tibetan medicine. Detailed characterization and comparison of the complete set of metabolites of these two species are critical for their objective identification and quality control. In this study, a rapid, simple and comprehensive (1)H NMR-based metabolomics method was first developed to differentiate the two species. A broad range of metabolites, including iridoid glycosides, xanthones, triterpenoids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, and amino acids, were identified. Statistical analysis showed evident differences between the two species, and the major markers responsible for the differences were screened. In addition, quantitative (1)H NMR method (qHNMR) was used for the target analysis of the discriminating metabolites. The results showed that S. mussotii had significantly higher contents of gentiopicrin, isoorientin, glucose, loganic acid, and choline, whereas S. chirayita exhibited higher levels of swertiamarin, oleanolic acid, valine, and fatty acids. These findings indicate that (1)H NMR-based metabolomics is a reliable and effective method for the metabolic profiling and discrimination of the two Swertia species, and can be used to verify the genuine origin of Zangyinchen.

Swertia mussotii Franch. and Swertia chirayita Buch.-Ham. have been commonly used under the same name 'Zangyinchen' for the treatment of liver and gallbladder diseases in traditional Tibetan medicine. Detailed characterization and comparison of the complete set of metabolites of these two species are critical for their objective identification and quality control. In this study, a rapid, simple and comprehensive H-1 NMR-based metabolomics method was first developed to differentiate the two species. A broad range of metabolites, including iridoid glycosides, xanthones, triterpenoids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, and amino acids, were identified. Statistical analysis showed evident differences between the two species, and the major markers responsible for the differences were screened. In addition, quantitative H-1 NMR method (qHNMR) was used for the target analysis of the discriminating metabolites. The results showed that S. mussotii had significantly higher contents of gentiopicrin, isoorientin, glucose, loganic acid, and choline, whereas S. chirayita exhibited higher levels of swertiamarin, oleanolic acid, valine, and fatty acids. These findings indicate that H-1 NMR-based metabolomics is a reliable and effective method for the metabolic profiling and discrimination of the two Swertia species, and can be used to verify the genuine origin of Zangyinchen. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

<br>• A 1H NMR-based method is first developed to differentiate two <b>Swertia</b> species. • The two <b>Swertia</b> species exhibit significant differences in their metabolic profiling. • Nine metabolic markers responsible for the differences are screened out. • A qHNMR method is used for quantitative analysis of the discriminating metabolites. • The proposed 1H NMR-based metabolomics method is rapid, reliable and effective.<br><b>Swertia mussotii</b> Franch. and <b>Swertia chirayita</b> Buch.-Ham. have been commonly used under the same name “Zangyinchen” for the treatment of liver and gallbladder diseases in traditional Tibetan medicine. Detailed characterization and comparison of the complete set of metabolites of these two species are critical for their objective identification and quality control. In this study, a rapid, simple and comprehensive 1H NMR-based metabolomics method was first developed to differentiate the two species. A broad range of metabolites, including iridoid glycosides, xanthones, triterpenoids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, and amino acids, were identified. Statistical analysis showed evident differences between the two species, and the major markers responsible for the differences were screened. In addition, quantitative 1H NMR method (qHNMR) was used for the target analysis of the discriminating metabolites. The results showed that <b>S. mussotii</b> had significantly higher contents of gentiopicrin, isoorientin, glucose, loganic acid, and choline, whereas <b>S. chirayita</b> exhibited higher levels of swertiamarin, oleanolic acid, valine, and fatty acids. These findings indicate that 1H NMR-based metabolomics is a reliable and effective method for the metabolic profiling and discrimination of the two <b>Swertia</b> species, and can be used to verify the genuine origin of Zangyinchen.

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