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OBJECTIVE: To provide a reference for the standardization of Tibetan medicine.METHOD: Investigating the hospital preparations , Tibetan formulated products, and the literature recorded preparations in the Tibetan, Qinghai, Gansu, Sichuan and Yunnan Provinces. Moreover, the varieties, original bases and standard conditions of these preparations were analyzed. According to Chinese Pharmacopoeia, Tibetan medicine part of ministerial standard, Tibetan medicine standards and related monographs and literatures of Tibetan medicine. RESULT: About 502 various of herbs were used in 711 hospital preparations from 40 medical institutions, Tibetan formulated products from Tibetan pharmaceutical factories, and 439 literature recorded preparations. About 154 herbs were used in more than 10 preparations, while most of them were Tibetan endemic species. About 416 medicinal varieties have the original documented basis, including 287 botanicals, 78 animal medicines, 51 mineral medicines, involving a total of 94 families, 261 genus and 643 species of botanical origin (including species of the next grade), 35 families, 52 genera and 61 species of the animal origin (including species of the next grade). About 122 varieties of herbs were cross-used in the traditional Chinese medicine and Tibetan medicine, about 80% of Tibetan medicinal varieties are produced in the Tibetan Areas of Tibet Plateau. About 293 medicinal varieties were contained in the above standards. Most of the herb's standards only contains character, indentification, and examination, except for 8 varieties which were recorded in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2010) as Tibetan medicine. CONCLUSION: This study of quality standard of Tibetan medicine should have an emphasis on the general varieties, especially the study on the arrangement research and the efficacious material basis of the varieties and the original, as well as term standardization of the National Medicine.

Aim: To reinvestigate the chemical constituents of the ethanolic extract of Meconopsis quintuplinervia Regel which is a traditional Tibetan medicine used for treatments of hepatitis, tuberculosis etc..; Methods: The compounds were enriched by column chromatography techniques over silica gel, macro porous resin and Sephadex LH-20 absorbents, and finally purified by reverse phase preparative HPLC methods with isocratic mobile phase systems of methanol-H2O-acetic acid (500:500:1) and acetonitrile-H2O-acetic acid (200:800:1). Structural determination of the pure compounds were based on extensive analyses of modern spectroscopic methods including IR, MS, HRMS, 1D- and 2D-NMR spectra.; Results: Three alkaloids were obtained and their structures were elucidated as norsanguinarine (I), O-methylflavinantine (II) and 6-methoxy-17-methyl-2, 3-[methylenebis (oxy)]-morphin-5-en-7-one (III).; Conclusion: Norsanguinarine (I) was isolated from genus Meconopsis for the first time, and 6-methoxy-17-methyl-2,3-[methylenebis(oxy)]-morphin-5-en-7-one (III) is a new alkaloid named as meconoquintupline.;

Background: Dracocephalum heterophyllum was a traditional Tibetan medicine possesses various pharmacological effects involved in anti-inflammatory, antibacterial activities. However, its anti-hepatitis, antioxidant activity and bioactive compounds have not been reported, the objective of this research work was to investigate the pharmacological activity and bioactive compounds of D. heterophyllum extracts. Results: In the present study, the anti-hepatics and antioxidant activities of four D. heterophyllum extracts (i.e. petroleum ether extracts, ethyl acetate extracts, n-BuOH extracts, and water extracts) were conducted. The main chemical constituent of petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts were also isolated using chromatographic techniques and identified by NMR spectroscopic methods. The anti-hepatitis assay showed that the petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts of D. heterophyllum significantly prolonged the mean survival times and reduced the mortality of mouse hepatitis model induced by concanavalin A (ConA). The levels of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase in blood serum could be decreased obviously by ethyl acetate extracts compared with ConA group (P < 0.01). The histological analysis demonstrated that the ethyl acetate extracts could inhibit apoptosis and necrosis caused by ConA. In addition, the antioxidant activities of the four extracts of D. heterophyllum were measured by DPPH assay, ABTS assay, anti-lipidperoxidation assay, ferric reducing antioxidant power assay, ferrous metal ions chelating assay and determination of total phenolic contents. The results showed that the ethyl acetate extract had the highest antioxidant activities, followed by petroleum ether extract. Finally, nine mainly compounds were isolated from the Petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts, including four triterpenes: oleanolic acid ( 1), ursolic acid ( 2), pomolic acid ( 3), 2α- hydroxyl ursolic acid ( 4), three flavonoids: apigenin-7- O-rutinoside ( 5), luteolin ( 8), diosmetin ( 9) and two phenolic acids: rosmarinic acid ( 6), methyl rosmarinate ( 7). Conclusion: The Ethyl acetate extract of D. heterophyllum had the highest anti-hepatitis and antioxidants activities, followed by petroleum ether extract. The bioactive substances may be triterpenes, flavonoids and phenolic acids, the ethyl acetate extracts of D. heterophyllum may be possible candidates in developing anti-hepatitis medicine.

Jerusalem artichoke (JA, Helianthus tuberosus L.) has been researched extensively due to its wide range of uses, but there are limited studies on its flowers. In this study, we report the first detailed phytochemical study on JA flowers, which yielded 21 compounds. Compound 4 was identified as a major water-soluble yellow pigment of JA flowers. In addition, the methanol extract of JA flowers and the isolates were evaluated for their antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. Among the tested compounds, compound 13 showed the strongest ABTS+ free radical scavenging activity with SC50 value of 2.30 ± 0.13 μg/mL, and compound 6 showed most potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with inhibition rate of 60.0% ± 10.3% at a concentration of 250 μg/mL. Results showed that methanol extract of JA flowers exhibited antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities which could be attributed to its phenolic ingredients including chlorogenic acid derivatives, flavonoids and phenols.

<br>Display Omitted<br>⿢ Two new phenolic acids (<b>1</b>⿿<b>2</b>) were isolated from the aerial parts of <b>Asterothamnus centrali-asiaticus</b>. ⿢ Five knownphenolic acids (<b>3</b>⿿<b>7</b>) were also obtained from the title plant. ⿢ <b>1</b>⿿<b>7</b> were evaluated for their anti-oxidant activity. ⿢ <b>1</b>⿿<b>7</b> showed anti-oxidant activity with IC50 values ranging from 7.65 to 22.44 μg/mL.<br>Two new phenolic acids 2-hydroxy-5-[(6⿲-<b>O</b>-(<b>E</b>)-caffeoyl)-β-d-glucopyranosyl]-oxybenzoic acid (<b>1</b>) and 2-hydroxy-5-[(3⿲-<b>O</b>-(<b>E</b>)-caffeoyl)-β-d-glucopyranosyl]-oxybenzoic acid (<b>2</b>) were isolated from the aerial parts of <b>Asterothamnus centrali-asiaticus</b>, together with five known ones (<b>3</b>-<b>7</b>). Their structures were elucidated by extensive 1D and 2D NMR studies and HRESIMS investigations. The anti-oxidant activity of the isolates was evaluated through ABTS radical cation decolorization assay. The results showed that all of them exhibited anti-oxidant activity, and compound <b>7</b> was the most active compound with an IC50 value of 7.65 μg/mL.

The young leaves and shoots of Sibiraea laevigata, known as "Liucha", are used as tea by Tibetans to improve digestion after meals. Long-term consumption of "Liucha" will cause weight loss. In present work, we reported on the isolation and NMR and chemical analysis-based elucidation of seven new sorbitol O-caffeic acid ester derivatives named sorbitol esters A-G (1-7) and eighteen known phenolic compounds from S. laevigata. All of the isolates were evaluated for their antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. Among them sorbitol ester A (1), sorbitol ester D (4), sorbitol ester F (6), sorbitol ester G (7), isoferulic acid (15), methyl caffeate (18), trans-p-hydroxycinnamic acid (19), and kaempferol 3-O-β-d-(6″-E-p-coumaroyl)-glucopyranoside (25) showed more potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity than the clinical drug acarbose.

An alarming number of students drop out of junior high school in developing countries. In this study, we examine the impacts of providing a social-emotional learning (SEL) program on the dropout behavior and learning anxiety of students in the first two years of junior high. We do so by analyzing data from a randomized controlled trial involving 70 junior high schools and 7,495 students in rural China. After eight months, the SEL program reduces dropout by 1.6 percentage points and decreases learning anxiety by 2.3 percentage points. Effects are no longer statistically different from zero after 15 months, perhaps due to decreasing student interest in the program. However, we do find that the program reduces dropout among students at high risk of dropping out (older students and students with friends who have already dropped out), both after eight and 15 months of exposure to the SEL program.

The first phytochemical investigation on the roots of <b>Ligularia purdomii</b> led to the isolation and identification of 18 compounds, including two eremophilane sesquiterpenoids (<b>1</b> and <b>2</b>), three benzofuran derivatives (<b>3</b>-<b>5</b>), a triterpenoid (<b>6</b>), two steroids (<b>7</b> and <b>8</b>), nine phenolic components (<b>9</b>-<b>17</b>), and a monofatty glyceride (<b>18</b>). The structural elucidation of the isolated compounds was performed by spectroscopic data and comparison with the literature. Compounds (−)-syringaresinol (<b>11</b>), scopoletin (<b>13</b>), 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxy-benzaldehyde (<b>14</b>), and glycerol monolinoleate (<b>18</b>) have not been recorded in <b>Ligularia</b> genus previously. The chemotaxonomic significance of these isolated compounds has been summarized.<br>• First phytochemical investigation on <b>L. purdomii.</b> • 18 compounds were identified from the acetone extract of <b>L. purdomii.</b> • Four compounds were reported from the genus <b>Ligularia</b> for the first time. • The results had important significance for chemotaxonomy of <b>L. purdomii.</b>

The present work is to study the chemical constituents from petroleum ether fraction of Tibetan medicine Swertia chirayita by column chromatography and recrystallization. The structures were identified by physical and chemical properties and spectral data as swerchirin (1), decussatin (2), 1,8-dihydroxy-3,5,7-trimethoxyxanthone (3), 1-hydroxy-3,5,7,8-tetramethoxyxanthone (4), bellidifolin (5), 1-hydroxy-3, 7-dimethoxyxanthone (6), methylswertianin (7), 1-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyxanthone (8), erythrodiol (9), oleanolic acid (10), gnetiolactone (11), scopoletin (12), sinapaldehyde (13), syringaldehyde (14), and β-sitosterol (15). Compounds 3, 4, 9, 11-14 were isolated from S. chirayita for the first time. Compounds 9 and 12 were firstly isolated from the genus Swertia. The cytotoxic activities of compounds 1, 2, 5, 7 and 8 against human pancreatic cancer cell lines SW1990 and BxPC-3,and the protective effects of these compounds against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress in human endothelium-derived EA.hy926 were investigated in vitro. The results showed no obvious effect at the high concentration of 50 μmol•L⁻¹.

In this article the classics textual research to the origin of "Zha-xun" was carried out, the ethnobotanical research methods, the origin of visits, key informant interviews, sample collection and textual research were applied in the research. The results showed that the hypothesis of Zha-xun"s origin mainly included "source of mine", "source of feces", "source of monkey menstrual blood" in China. There were "source of fossil", "source of the plant secretion" abroad. The authors had interviewed the villagers at origin, herbalists, Tibetan doctors, herb dealers, foreign scholars for a total of 18 people, and collecting 45 batches medicinal materials. According to ancient Tibetan classics textual and Tibetan medicine doctors' views, medicinal materials were divided into the genuine and the substitutes. The genuine was identified as ancient so-called "iron" type "Zha-xun", and the substitute was fecal pellet bonding briquette. According to the field survey and literature research, "source of fossil" more in line with substance of Zha-xun was derived from the rock. As the results, the author believed that Zha-xun was the mixture of organic fossils from the rock seepage with flying squirrel, pika feces. So it is needed to be set up Zha-xun classification standard to evaluate the quality of medicinal materials. Meanwhile, it was necessary to further clarify fecal pellet substitute rationality. Above all, this article clarified the status of the use of Tibetan medicine-"Zha-xun", and laid the foundation of species systematics and quality standards research of "Zha-xun".

A simple, precise, and rapid method was developed for the determination of four flavonoids, apigenin (AP), tricin (TR), luteolin (LU), and 4′-methoxy-tricin (MTR) in the Tibetan herbal medicine of Pyrethrum tatsienense by the high-performance liquid chromatographic technique coupled with photodiode array detection (DAD). A C18 reversed-phase column and a linear gradient elution system with acetonitrile-tetrahydrofuran-1% acetic acid as the mobile phase were employed. The method is validated in terms of the limit of detection (LOD), linearity, precision, and accuracy. The LODs were 48 ng/mL for AP, 75 ng/mL for TR, 88 ng/mL for LU, and 59 ng/mL for MTR, respectively. An excellent linear response was observed over the range specified for all analytes, as confirmed by the correlation coefficient with which from 0.9995 to 0.9999. The intraday RSDs ranged from 0.59 to 2.60%, and the interday RSDs were not higher than 0.05. The accuracy of the method was confirmed with an average recovery ranging from 95.9 to 100.0%. Since the extraction conditions can affect the extraction efficiency, nine different extracts of P. tatsienense were analyzed using different extraction solvents and extraction times. The contents of the four flavonoids in the extract of P. tatsienense were successfully determined within 18 min.

OBJECTIVE: To develop an HPLC method for the determination of a Tibetan medicine Meconopsis quintuplinervia.METHOD: A Hypersil-Keystone-C18 column (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm) was used with the isocratic elution of acetonitrile and 0.012% glacial acetic acid. The flow rate was 1.0 mL x min(-1), and the detection wavelength was set at 237 nm. RESULT: The linear range of 0-methylflavinantine was 0.2-2.4 microg (r = 0.999 7). The average recovery was 96.26%. CONCLUSION: The developed method was reliable, and can be used for the quality control of M. quintuplinervia Regel.

This study is aimed to establish a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for simultaneous determination of skimmin, scopolin and umbelliferone in Saussurea hieracioides. Samples were analyzed on a Wondasil C18-WR column (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm) with methanol (A) and water containing 0.1% phosphate (B) as mobile phases for gradient elution at a flow rate of 1.0 mL x min(-1). The detection wavelength and column temperature were set at 325 nm and 35 degrees C, respectively, and the sample size was 10 microL. The results showed that skimmin, scopolin and umbelliferone were simultaneously achieved within 40 min under the above conditions. A good linearity was observed in the range of 0.18-5.6 microg (r = 1.000 0), 0.060-1.8 microg (r = 0.999 9), 0.032-0.97 microg (r = 0.999 8) for skimmin, scopolin and umbelliferone, respectively, with the average recoveries of 99.16% (RSD = 0.41%), 100.3% (RSD = 0.79%), 102.2% (RSD = 0.87%). The method is simple, accurate and reproducible and can be used for the quality control of S. hieracioides.

DNA barcoding, the identification of species using one or a few short standardized DNA sequences, is an important complement to traditional taxonomy. However, there are particular challenges for barcoding plants, especially for species with complex evolutionary histories. We herein evaluated the utility of five candidate sequences - rbcL, matK, trnH-psbA, trnL-F and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) - for barcoding Rhodiola species, a group of high-altitude plants frequently used as adaptogens, hemostatics and tonics in traditional Tibetan medicine. Rhodiola was suggested to have diversified rapidly recently. The genus is thus a good model for testing DNA barcoding strategies for recently diversified medicinal plants. This study analyzed 189 accessions, representing 47 of the 55 recognized Rhodiola species in the Flora of China treatment. Based on intraspecific and interspecific divergence and degree of monophyly statistics, ITS was the best single-locus barcode, resolving 66% of the Rhodiola species. The core combination rbcL+matK resolved only 40.4% of them. Unsurprisingly, the combined use of all five loci provided the highest discrimination power, resolving 80.9% of the species. However, this is weaker than the discrimination power generally reported in barcoding studies of other plant taxa. The observed complications may be due to the recent diversification, incomplete lineage sorting and reticulate evolution of the genus. These processes are common features of numerous plant groups in the high-altitude regions of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: In Chinese folk medicine, the flower of Edgeworthia gardneri (Wall.) Meisn. is used to treat various metabolic diseases, such as hyperglycemia, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to explore the antidiabetes potential of the flower of E. gardneri and investigate whether it can benefit the entire gut bacteria community. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Chemical constituents of the extract were analyzed by UHPLC-Q Exactive Mass Spectrometer (UHPLC-QE-MS). The antidiabetes effect of the water extract (WAE) of the flower of E. gardneri was evaluated in diabetic mice induced by high-fat diet (HFD) and streptozotocin (STZ) (six groups, n = 8) daily at doses of 1, 2, and 3 g/kg for 4 weeks. The gut microbiota was analyzed using high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the fecal were also investigated. RESULTS: UHPLC-QE-MS analysis identified 29 compounds, including five alkaloids, six coumarins, four flavonoids, 11 organic acids, and three additional compounds, in the WAE. Results showed that the high dose of WAE considerably decreased the blood glucose level by 30.0%. Furthermore, E. gardneri significantly ameliorated insulin resistance and lipid metabolism dysfunction and repaired islet, hepatic, and white fat and colon histology in diabetic mice. Diabetic mice treated with WAE showed apparent changes in the structure and composition of the gut microbiota. WAE reversed the changes in Clostridiales, Lachnospiraceae, S24-7, Rikenellaceae, and Dorea in diabetic mice. The correlation analysis indicated that key OTUs were related to diabetes indices. The amounts of SCFAs, including acetic, propionic, and valeric acids, were significantly high in WAE-treated diabetic groups. CONCLUSIONS: E. gardneri treatment improved the glucose metabolism and reshaped the unbalanced gut microbiota of diabetic mice. Our study provides evidence for application of E. gardneri to treatment of diabetes mellitus.

Presenting with common mental health difficulties, particularly depression and anxiety, there is also preliminary evidence that mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) including mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT), mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) and integrated mindfulness yoga practices may also be effective in reducing common mental health difficulties during pregnancy. We systematically reviewed and synthesized the current literature on the effectiveness of MBIs in reducing severity of perinatal anxiety and depression. Databases including PubMed, Cochrane Library, IndMED and PsychoInfo were searched for relevant studies. Manual searches were conducted in relevant articles and Google Scholar. Seventeen cohorts representing 18 studies were included. Pre-post effect sizes were reported for both treatment and control groups. Seven randomized controlled trials (RCTs), two non-randomized controlled trials and nine treatment evaluations were included. Maternal participation in an MBI was associated with reductions in perinatal anxiety of moderate to large magnitude. Results for the effect of MBIs on depression were less consistent, with pre-post treatment reductions of moderate magnitude, but no significant differences in depression scores when MBI was compared with a control group. There was some evidence that MBIs were associated with increased mindfulness. Risk of bias in studies was variable. Our review offers preliminary evidence for the effectiveness of MBIs in reducing perinatal anxiety, with more equivocal findings with regard to perinatal depressive symptoms. Further methodologically rigorous evaluation using RCTs and longer follow-up periods are recommended.

BACKGROUND:After treatment completion, breast cancer (BC) survivors frequently experience residual symptoms of pain, fatigue, high levels of psychological stress, anxiety, depression, fear of recurrence, and metastasis. Post-treatment stress, in particular, can adversely affect health-related quality of life, which, in turn, induces onset or recurrence of chronic diseases. Effective interventions that target these psychological symptoms and their physiological consequences are needed, especially for economically disadvantaged patients. However, in China, few evidence-based intervention strategies have been established among BC survivors. This study will formally adapt, develop, and evaluate an intensive mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) intervention protocol to improve mental health, quality of life, and compliance with medication among Chinese BC survivors. METHODS: A randomized, waitlist-controlled clinical trial will be conducted. Based on our power calculation, 418 BC survivors will be recruited from 10 low-income communities in Shanghai. All subjects will be randomly assigned either to the MBSR program or to a waitlisted usual care regimen that will offer the MBSR program after the completion of the other trial arm (after 6 months follow-up). Our 8-week MBSR intervention program will provide systematic training to promote stress reduction by self-regulating arousal to stress. Assessments will be made at baseline, 4 weeks (in the middle of the first MBSR intervention), 8 weeks (at the end of the first MBSR intervention), 6 months, and 12 months, and will include measures of psychological symptoms (depression, anxiety, and perceived stress), quality of life, and medication adherence. The expected outcome will be the improvement in psychological symptoms, quality of life, and medication compliance in the MBSR intervention group. DISCUSSION: This study will help develop an affordable, self-care psychological intervention protocol to help Chinese BC survivors improve their quality of life, and could be helpful in further developing affordable disease management plans for patients of other chronic diseases.

This study aimed to find a simple and effective mindfulness training method for intervening depression. 95 university students with moderate or severe depression participated in the study and they were divided into three mindfulness training groups: 8-week complete group, 8-week informal group, and 4-week group. All subjects completed Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-Ⅱ) and Five Fact Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) before the intervention, after which, 55 subjects completed the assessments once more. Results showed the scores of specific dimensions representing mindfulness levels were different. For the 4-week group, scores of description, action aware and nonjudge significantly were improved, while the other two groups were improved significantly on all the five dimensions, especially the informal training group. In the discussion, it focused more on the effects of training time and training contents, and briefly discussed the relation of subjects dropout, subjects attendance, homework completion status and intervention effects. In conclusion, all the three intervention modes have magnificent intervention effects. Integrated many sided, 8-week informal training is of the best effects, which may be considered as a better mindfulness training mode henceforth, however, the comparison between the formal training and informal training still needs further study.

Background: With the increasing availability of Smartphones and wearable tracking devices, it is now feasible and affordable to apply such mobile devices to delivering mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) and intermittent fasting (IF) to lower blood pressure, as traditional MBSR and IF incur the burden of commuting to the intervention sites for the patients. Our study will develop and scientifically evaluate an MBSR app, an IF app and an MBSR + IF app in terms of their effectiveness for lowering blood pressure. We will further explore the possible interaction effect (synergistic effect) between MBSR and IF intervention: will improved mindfulness enhance patients’ adherence to the IF protocol? Methods: We will develop an MBSR app, an IF app, and an MBSR+IF app. We will then conduct an 8-week randomized controlled trial with a factorial design to evaluate the efficacy of these new apps, especially the interaction effect between MBSR and IF. Eligible individuals will be randomly assigned to Group 1 (MBSR app), Group 2 (IF app), Group 3 (MBSR + IF app) or Group 4 (usual care). Discussion: This will be the first attempt to explore the impact of mindfulness intervention on the adherence of a behavioral intervention. Nevertheless, our protocol is limited in that the effectiveness of intermittent fasting on lowering blood pressure has not been supported by large-sample randomized controlled trials. Thus if there is no significant effectiveness we cannot determine whether it is due to the intermittent fasting intervention itself or it is due to the limit of smartphone as a vehicle.

The traditional Tibetan medicine Oxytropis falcata Bunge, in the Leguminosae family, is widely used in the west area owing to its significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. O. falcata is rich in flavonoids, which are the main secondary metabolites and key bioactive components of this plant. Up to now, 91 flavonoids have been isolated from O. falcata, including isoflavone, flavone, flavonone, flavonol, homoisoflavonoid, chalcone, dihydrochalcone, chalcone dimers, and pterocarpans. The flavonoids in O. falcata have good anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities, which are comparable to those of a positive drug control (indomethacin). Furthermore, these flavonoids exhibit antibacterial, antioxidant, antitumour, anti-cardiovascular disease, and haemostatic activities. However, to date, O. falcata has not been reviewed comprehensively. Herein, the main secondary metabolites, biosynthetic pathways, and bioactivities of O. falcata are discussed.;

The traditional Tibetan medicine Oxytropis falcata Bunge, in the Leguminosae family, is widely used in the west area owing to its significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. O. falcata is rich in flavonoids, which are the main secondary metabolites and key bioactive components of this plant. Up to now, 91 flavonoids have been isolated from O. falcata, including isoflavone, flavone, flavonone, flavonol, homoisoflavonoid, chalcone, dihydrochalcone, chalcone dimers, and pterocarpans. The flavonoids in O. falcata have good anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities, which are comparable to those of a positive drug control (indomethacin). Furthermore, these flavonoids exhibit antibacterial, antioxidant, antitumour, anti-cardiovascular disease, and haemostatic activities. However, to date, O. falcata has not been reviewed comprehensively. Herein, the main secondary metabolites, biosynthetic pathways, and bioactivities of O. falcata are discussed.

This study is to establish the fingerprint for Phyllanthus emblica and their tannin parts from different habitats by HPLC for its quality control. The determination was carried out on a Diamonsil C18 (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm) column, with methanol-0.2% glacial acetic acid as mobile phase with gradient elution at a flow rate of 1 mL x min(-1). The temperature was maintained at 30 degrees C and the detected wavelength is 260 nm, Thirteen chromatographic peaks were extracted as the common peaks of the fingerprint of P. emblica, and eleven as the common peaks of P. emblica tannin parts, and five peaks were identified by comparing with referent samples. The fingerprints of 8 samples were compared and classified by similarity evaluation, cluster analysis and principal component analysis (PCA). The similarity degrees of eight P. emblica were between 0.763 and 0.993, while tannin parts were between 0.903 and 0.991. All the samples of P. emblica and their tannin parts were classified into 3 categories. The method was so highly reproducible, simple and reliable that it could provide basis for quality control and evaluation of P. emblica from different habitats.

Lycium ruthenicum Murr. is commonly used in traditional Tibetan medicine, and the fruits of Lycium ruthenicum Murr. contain an immunologically active pectin which improves immune function against chronic diseases. The present study was performed to evaluate the immunomodulatory effects of Lycium ruthenicum Murr. polysaccharide 3 (LRGP3) in cyclophosphamide (Cy)-induced immunosuppressed mice. Mice were injected intraperitoneally once daily with low-dose (25 mg/kg), intermediate-dose (50 mg/kg), high-dose (100 mg/kg) of LRGP3 for 10 consecutive days, respectively. Compared with Cy group, LRGP3 accelerated recovery of spleen and thymus indices, enhanced T cell and B cell proliferation responses, as well as peritoneal macrophage phagocytosis. In addition, LRGP3 treatment restored the levels of interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the serum of Cy-treated mice. These results indicate that LRGP3 plays an important role in the protection against immunosuppression in Cy-treated mice and could be a potential immunomodulatory agent.

Using data for 25,780 species categorized on the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List, we present an assessment of the status of the world’s vertebrates. One-fifth of species are classified as Threatened, and we show that this figure is increasing: On average, 52 species of mammals, birds, and amphibians move one category closer to extinction each year. However, this overall pattern conceals the impact of conservation successes, and we show that the rate of deterioration would have been at least one-fifth again as much in the absence of these. Nonetheless, current conservation efforts remain insufficient to offset the main drivers of biodiversity loss in these groups: agricultural expansion, logging, overexploitation, and invasive alien species.Though the threat of extinction is increasing, overall declines would have been worse in the absence of conservation. Though the threat of extinction is increasing, overall declines would have been worse in the absence of conservation.

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