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BACKGROUND: Surya Namaskar (SN), a popular traditional Indian yogic practice, includes practicing 12 physical postures with alternate forward and backward bending movement of the body along with deep breathing maneuvers. The practice of SN has become popular among yoga practitioners and other fitness conscious people. The long-term effect of practicing SN and other yogic practices on cardiorespiratory responses during SN are lacking. AIM: The present study was conducted to study the effect of yogic training on various cardiorespiratory responses during the SN practice in yoga trainees after a time interval of 3, 6, and 11 months. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study was conducted on 9 healthy male Army soldiers who underwent training in various yoga postures including SN, meditation, and pranayama for 1 h daily for 11 months. First, second, and third phase of the study was conducted in the laboratory after completion of 3, 6, and 11 months of the yoga training. The participants performed SN along with other yogic practices in the laboratory as per their daily practice schedule. The cardiorespiratory responses of the volunteers were recorded during actual practice of SN. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: One-way repeated measure ANOVA followed by Tukey HSD. RESULTS: Oxygen consumption and heart rate during actual practice of SN was 0.794 +/- 0.252, 0.738 +/- 0.229, and 0.560 +/- 0.165 L/min and 92.1 +/- 11.6, 97.9 +/- 7.3 and 87.4 +/- 9.2 beats/min respectively at 1(st) , 2(nd) , and 3(rd) phase of yoga training. Minute ventilation and tidal volume also reduced from 19.9 +/- 4.65 to 17.8 +/- 4.41 L/min and 1.091 +/- 0.021 to 0.952 L/breath from 1(st) phase to 3(rd) phase of yoga training. However, respiratory parameters like breathing rate (fR) did not show any reduction across the three phases. CONCLUSION: The results of the present study indicated that yogic training caused conditioning of cardiorespiratory parameters except fR, which did not reduce across three phases of training.

This study investigated the role of dispositional mindful attention in immediate reactivity to, and subsequent recovery from, laboratory-induced negative emotion. One hundred and fourteen undergraduates viewed blocks of negative pictures followed by neutral pictures. Participants' emotional responses to negative pictures and subsequent neutral pictures were assessed via self-reported ratings. Participants' emotional response to negative pictures was used to index level of emotional reactivity to unpleasant stimuli; emotional response to neutral pictures presented immediately after the negative pictures was used to index level of emotional recovery from pre-induced negative emotion (residual negativity). Results indicated that mindful attention was not associated with the emotional response to negative pictures, but it was associated with reduced negative emotion in response to the neutral pictures presented immediately after the negative pictures, suggesting better recovery as opposed to reduced reactivity. This effect was especially pronounced in later experimental blocks when the accumulation of negative stimuli produced greater negative emotion from which participants had to recover. The current study extends previous findings on the relationship between dispositional mindfulness and reduced negative emotion by demonstrating that mindful attention may facilitate better recovery from negative emotion, possibly through more effective disengagement from previous stimuli.

Stress is important in substance use disorders (SUDs). Mindfulness training (MT) has shown promise for stress-related maladies. No studies have compared MT to empirically validated treatments for SUDs. The goals of this study were to assess MT compared to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in substance use and treatment acceptability, and specificity of MT compared to CBT in targeting stress reactivity. Thirty-six individuals with alcohol and/or cocaine use disorders were randomly assigned to receive group MT or CBT in an outpatient setting. Drug use was assessed weekly. After treatment, responses to personalized stress provocation were measured. Fourteen individuals completed treatment. There were no differences in treatment satisfaction or drug use between groups. The laboratory paradigm suggested reduced psychological and physiological indices of stress during provocation in MT compared to CBT. This pilot study provides evidence of the feasibility of MT in treating SUDs and suggests that MT may be efficacious in targeting stress.

Stress is important in substance use disorders (SUDs). Mindfulness training (MT) has shown promise for stress-related maladies. No studies have compared MT to empirically validated treatments for SUDs. The goals of this study were to assess MT compared to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in substance use and treatment acceptability, and specificity of MT compared to CBT in targeting stress reactivity. Thirty-six individuals with alcohol and/or cocaine use disorders were randomly assigned to receive group MT or CBT in an outpatient setting. Drug use was assessed weekly. After treatment, responses to personalized stress provocation were measured. Fourteen individuals completed treatment. There were no differences in treatment satisfaction or drug use between groups. The laboratory paradigm suggested reduced psychological and physiological indices of stress during provocation in MT compared to CBT. This pilot study provides evidence of the feasibility of MT in treating SUDs and suggests that MT may be efficacious in targeting stress.

Stress and negative affect are known contributors to drug use and relapse, and several known treatments for addictions include strategies for managing them. In the current study, we administered a well-established stress provocation during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to 23 participants who completed either mindfulness training (MT; N=11) or the American Lung Association's Freedom From Smoking (FFS; N=12), which is a cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) for smoking cessation. Across the entire sample, we found that stress reactivity in several brain regions including the amygdala and anterior/mid insula was related to reductions in smoking after treatment, as well as at 3-month post-treatment follow-up. Moreover, conjunction analysis revealed that these same regions also differentiated between treatment groups such that the MT group showed lower stress-reactivity compared to the FFS/CBT group. This suggests that reduction in stress reactivity may be one of the mechanisms that underlie the efficacy of MT in reducing smoking over time. The findings have important implications for our understanding of stress, the neural and psychological mechanisms that underlie mindfulness-based treatments, and for smoking cessation treatments more broadly.

Study of the thought of a 16th century proponent of Hindu Advaita Vedanta philosophy.

ObjectiveTo assess the feasibility of engaging stressed, low-income parents with obesity in a novel mindfulness-based parent stress intervention aimed at decreasing the risk of early childhood obesity. Study design An 8-week mindfulness-based parent stress group intervention (parenting mindfully for health) plus nutrition and physical activity counseling (PMH+N) was developed for parents with obesity aimed at preventing obesity in their at-risk 2- to 5-year-old children. PMH+N was compared with a control group intervention (C+N), and improvement in parenting was assessed before and after the intervention using the laboratory-based toy wait task (TWT). In addition, nutrition, physical activity, and stress were assessed using a multimethod approach. Results After establishing feasibility in 20 parent-child dyads (phase 1), 42 dyads were randomized to PMH+N vs C+N (phase 2). Compared with the C+N group, the PMH+N group demonstrated significantly better group attendance (P < .015), greater improvement in parental involvement (P < .05), and decreased parental emotional eating rating (P < .011). Furthermore, C+N, but not PMH+N, was associated with significant increases in child body mass index percentile during treatment (P < .03) when accounting for the TWT before and after changes in parenting scores. Conclusions These findings suggest that a mindfulness-based parent stress intervention to decrease childhood obesity risk is feasible, requires further testing of therapeutic mechanisms in larger samples, and may be a potential way to attenuate the risk of childhood obesity.

Time and Temporality in Samkhya-Yoga and Abhidharma Buddhism is a masterly treatment of the philosophical issues that have incessantly exercised the mind of scholars, both eastern and western, modern and ancient. The author shows remarkable ingenuity in his treatment of the themes under investigation and offers incisive insights into the questions of time and temporality. Reification of time, Dr. Braj Mohan Sinha maintains, is a metaphysical pre-supposition that hinders a proper understanding of the phenomenon of temporality. Temporality, he suggests, need not be conceived as an adjectival synonym of time. Rather, temporality must be understood in the context of the world involved consciousness which is continually on the go and, as the structure of becoming and phenomenal change, is essentially temporal. Temporality, implies both the fact of change and the finitude of the phenomenal existence as well as the corresponding subjective experience. The book raises fundamental questions, regarding assumptions of scholars who regard Samkhya-yoga and Abhidharma Buddhism as representing two diametrically opposed philosophical positions. While recognising a certain difference in the basic orientation of the two religious philosophies, the author successfully argues for significant congruence in their ontological and soteriological perspectives. Both the systems appear in close company specially in their articulation of the problem of temporality and its transcendence which can only be typified as a soteriology of the present. The author effectively brings out the philosophico-religious significance of this soteriology of 'present' and its non-eschatological nuances in contradistinction to the eschatological soteriologies of some other religious traditions. Printed Pages: 229.