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The regulation of postprandial blood glucose (PBG) levels is an effective therapeutic method to treat diabetes and prevent diabetes-related complications. Resveratroloside is a monoglucosylated form of stilbene that is present in red wine, grapes, and several traditional medicinal plants. In our study, the effect of resveratroloside on reducing PBG was studied in vitro and in vivo. In comparison to the starch treatment alone, the oral administration of resveratroloside-starch complexes significantly inhibited the PBG increase in a dose-dependent pattern in normal and diabetic mice. The PBG level treated with resveratrol (30 mg/kg) was not lower than that of resveratroloside. Further analyses demonstrated that resveratroloside strongly and effectively inhibited α-glucosidase, with an 50% inhibitory concentration value of 22.9 ± 0.17 μM, and its inhibition was significantly stronger than those of acarbose and resveratrol (264 ± 3.27 and 108 ± 2.13 μM). Moreover, a competitive inhibition mechanism of resveratroloside on α-glucosidase was determined by enzyme kinetic assays and molecular docking experiments. The molecular docking of resveratroloside with α-glucosidase demostrated the competitive inhibitory effect of resveratroloside, which occupies the catalytic site and forms strong hydrogen bonds with the residues of α-glucosidase. Resveratrol was also determined to be a competitive inhibition mechanism on α-glucosidase by enzyme kinetic assays and molecular docking experiments. This study suggested that resveratroloside had the ability to regulate PBG levels and can be considered a potential agent for the treatment of diabetes mellitus.