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PURPOSE: To determine whether non-physical activity mind and body practices reduce the severity of fatigue in patients with cancer or hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients compared to control interventions. METHODS: We included randomized trials which compared non-physical activity mind and body practices compared with control interventions for the management of fatigue in cancer and HSCT patients. RESULTS: Among 55 trials (4975 patients), interventions were acupuncture or acupressure (n=12), mindfulness (n=11), relaxation techniques (n=10), massage (n=6), energy therapy (n=5), energizing yogic breathing (n=3) and others (n=8). When combined, all interventions significantly reduced fatigue severity compared to all controls (standardized mean difference -0.51, 95% confidence interval -0.73 to -0.29). More specifically, mindfulness and relaxation significantly reduced fatigue severity. CONCLUSIONS: Mindfulness and relaxation were effective at reducing fatigue severity in patients with cancer and HSCT recipients. Future studies should evaluate how to translate these findings into clinical practice across different patient groups.

BACKGROUND: Fatigue is an important problem in paediatric cancer patients and yoga may be an effective intervention. The primary objective was to determine the feasibility of individualized yoga for hospitalized children receiving intensive chemotherapy. METHODS: We included English-speaking children and adolescents aged 7-18 years receiving intensive chemotherapy or haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Yoga was conducted three times weekly for three weeks. The primary outcome was feasibility, defined as ability to deliver at least 60% of planned sessions. Secondary outcomes were parent-reported Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) Multidimensional Fatigue Scale, Fatigue Scale-Parent, PedsQL Generic Core Scales and PedsQL Acute Cancer Module. RESULTS: Between January and October 2013, 11 patients were enrolled. Median age was 14.0 (range 7.7-16.4) years and 6 (55%) were boys. Yoga was feasible with 10/11 participants meeting the threshold for feasibility. The median number of yoga sessions was 9 (range 3-13). No adverse events were attributed to yoga. Mean+/-standard deviation for the day 21 proxy-reported PedsQL general fatigue scores was 55.6+/-15.5. Qualitative comments suggested design changes for future yoga studies. CONCLUSIONS: Individualized yoga is feasible for inpatient children receiving intensive chemotherapy. Future work will include development and conduct of a randomized trial for fatigue amelioration. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02105389.